Parshikova Tatiana Alekseevna
Institute of distance education, Tyumen state University
master degree, MSC

The article is devoted to the study of mnogopartijnosti understanding conflict of laws principle of "personal law" (Statute) of the legal entity at the present stage. Analyzed the criteria of the definition of "personal status" in different countries. Proposals on the legal regulation of the concept of "personal law" (Statute) in the legislation of the Russian Federation.

Category: Law

Article reference:
The personal law of a legal entity, which is the subject of international private law relations // Humanities scientific researches. 2015. № 1. P. 1 [Electronic journal]. URL:

View this article in Russian

In the modern world under private international law understand a single set of regulations domestic regulations and laws, international treaties and traditions governing civil, commercial, family, labor, currency, land, procedural relations complicated by a foreign element.
One of the major categories in the study of private international law is the subject. Under the subject law is understood, a person who has under private international law the ability to realize their rights and legal responsibilities. To the subjects in international private law relations include: physical and legal persons and the state. Let us look more closely at one of the most important, in our opinion, and the most complicated subjects of international law, as a legal entity.
In accordance with article 48 of the Civil code of the Russian Federation [1], “a legal person is an organization, which has separate property and is responsible to them for its obligations, may on its own behalf to acquire and exercise civil rights and bear civil responsibilities in court to be the plaintiff and the defendant.”
Responsibilities, which carry a legal entity in international private law relations, argues that in fact they are the Central subjects of international law. Peculiarities of the legal status and economic activity of legal entities governed first of their state affiliation. Actually “nationality”, i.e. the nationality of a legal entity and is the basis of their “personal status” (“personal law”).
The legal category of “personal Statute” defines, so to speak “personal status” of the organization. The definition of “personal status” legal entities prevalent in the legal system of all countries and almost everywhere is installed in a similar way: the creation, reorganization and liquidation of legal entity, including questions of succession; domestic relations, including relations of a legal entity from its members; the responsibility of founders (participants) of a legal entity for its obligations and others (item 2 item 1202 of the civil code of the Russian Federation [2]).
In all countries, carrying out its activities the organization within their territories are divided into “national” and “foreign”. In case of a legal entity operating abroad, they are under the influence of two legal systems, the regulation of the national law of the country of origin (“personal law”) and the national law of the country of the place of business.
The concept of “personal Statute of the legal entity is considered one of the ambiguous in private international law, since this criterion attach” concludes “implicit” collisions and totally different is explained in the law of different countries. “Personal Statute” legal entities can be defined in several variations (criteria).
1. The theory of incorporation, implies that the legal entity belongs to the country on whose territory it is established. The theory operates hectares of the territory of the USA, UK, Canada, Australia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, China, the Netherlands and Russia.
2. The theory of abode or, in other words the theory of efficient places, suggests that the legal person has the nationality of the country in whose territory is located in the administrative centre, the management of the organization. This conflict solution enshrined in the legal system of France, Japan, Spain, Germany, Belgium, Ukraine and Poland.
3. Theory of operation center Il theory places the implementation of economic activities, is that the legal person has the nationality of the country in whose territory it operates. This conflict of laws principle noted in the legal system of Egypt, Syria, India, Algeria, and other developing States.
4. The theory of control, means that the legal person has the nationality of that country, with a territory which is controlled by its activities (primarily through funding). “Theory of control” is, in our opinion, the most modern criteria establish the nationality of legal persons in addition, the use of this criterion is recorded in contemporary international law (Convention on the settlement of investment disputes between state and national of other States of 18 March 1965 (G. Washington) [3], “Treaty to the Energy Charter Treaty (Signed in, Lisbon 17.12.1994))[4].
This mnogovershinnoe perception of conflict of laws principle “personal Statute of the legal entity has a significant negative influence on the development of international trade relations. A variety of establishing the nationality of legal persons raises issues of “duality of nationality”, the duality of tax, to recognize the impracticability of the organization bankrupt or to seize its share capital.
One of the problems in the use of definitions of the concept of “personal law” is applied in many legal acts, including the laws of the Russian Federation synonym for “personal Statute”. For example, in the Concept of development of civil legislation of the Russian Federation, section VIII, p. 2.4 [5] refers to “personal Statute with reference to Art. 1202, in which we are talking about “personal law”. “…For greater certainty regulation is proposed to add provisions concerning the law to be applied to property rights, a list of specific issues that are resolved on the basis of the applicable law (in REM Statute), by analogy with the personal Statute (paragraph 2 of article 1202 of the civil code)…”[2].
However, in the legal system there is no justification and the official fixing of these terms as synonyms. In private international law uses the term “lex societatis” and implies the translation and application of the term personal Statute, as a synonym of the term “personal law”. In this regard, the means of resolving this uncertainty is assumed in the improvement of Russian civil procedure and arbitration procedure legislation in this area. In particular, we propose to amend the Civil code of the Russian Federation, in particular:
1. To amend Art. 1195 of the civil code of the Russian Federation
Personal law (Statute) individuals
1. The concept of personal law and personal Statute are identical and have the same legal force.
2. Personal law (Statute) of a physical person is considered to be the law of the country whose nationality that person has.
2. Similar changes in all the paragraphs of article 1195 and Art. Art. 1196, 1197, 1198, 1199, 1202, 1203, 1209.
Changes, in our opinion, will allow lawyers to correctly utilize this concept.
Regarding international law, the aspiration of finding a uniform status of foreign legal entities exist at the international level: the Convention of the European Union in 1986 on the recognition of non-governmental organizations [6]; determination of legal capacity of legal persons under the Convention of 1993 on legal assistance CIS [7]; the determination of the status of legal persons in international treaties.

  1. Гражданский кодекс Российской Федерации (часть первая) от 30 ноября 1994 г. N 51-ФЗ (ред. от 05.05.2014) // Собрание законодательства РФ. -  1994. – N 32. – Ст. 3301.
  2. Гражданский кодекс Российской Федерации (часть третья) от 26 ноября 2001 г. N 146-ФЗ (ред. от 05.05.2014) // Собрание законодательства РФ. – 2001. – N 49. – Ст. 4552.
  3. Конвенция о порядке разрешения инвестиционных споров между государством и лицом другого государства от 18 марта 1965 г. // Международное частное право. Сборник документов.- М.: БЕК, 1996.
  4.  «Договор к Энергетической хартии» (Подписан в г. Лиссабоне 17.12.1994) [Электронный ресурс]. – Документ опубликован не был. – Доступ из справочно-правовой системы «КонсультантПлюс» (дата обращения 01.01.2015).
  5. «Концепция развития гражданского законодательства Российской Федерации» (одобрена решением Совета при Президенте РФ по кодификации и совершенствованию гражданского законодательства от 07.10.2009) // «Вестник ВАС РФ». – 2009. – N 11.
  6. Европейская конвенция о признании юридическими лицами международных неправительственных организаций от 24 апреля 1986 г. [Электронный ресурс]. – Документ опубликован не был. – Доступ из справочно-правовой системы «КонсультантПлюс» (дата обращения 01.01.2015).
  7.  «Конвенция о правовой помощи и правовых отношениях по гражданским, семейным и уголовным делам» (Заключена в г. Минске 22.01.1993) (вступила в силу 19.05.1994, для Российской Федерации 10.12.1994) (с изм. от 28.03.1997)  // Собрание законодательства РФ. -  1995. – N 17. – Ст. 1472.

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