Джепбарова Ширин1, Мухаммедова Гульнар1
1Туркменский национальный институт мировых языков им. Довлетмаммета Азади, преподаватель кафедры ближневосточных языков


Jepbarova Shirin1, Muhammedova Gulnar1
1Dovletmammet Azadi Turkmen National Institute of World Languages, Lecturer in the Department of Near Eastern Languages

This article is about thorough study of one of the greatest poets of world history. Magtymguly Pyragy's brilliant creativity brought world fame to the Turkmen people and made a great contribution to the literary treasury not only of our people, but also of other peoples of the world. After reciting the poems of the great sage, several scholars of the world analyzed them meaningfully and gave them a high value among their works.

Keywords: 300th anniversary, collections of poems, foreign scholars, Magtymguly Pyragy, poetry, works of poet

Рубрика: Литературоведение

Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Джепбарова Ш., Мухаммедова Г. Magtymguly's philosophical and political views // Гуманитарные научные исследования. 2023. № 10 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: https://human.snauka.ru/2023/10/55549 (дата обращения: 08.11.2023).

Magtymguly Pyragy is a prominent representative of the democratic culture of the Turkmen people in the second half of the 18th century, a great poet, scientist.

Magtymguly was the greatest and most famous thinker of artistic, philosophical, political and social ideas of human history. The breadth of the issues he focuses on is impressive, and he brings his innovative solutions to all of these issues and expresses them in his poems.

The problems expressed by Magtymguly can be divided into three big groups: 1. General philosophical problems; 2. Natural philosophical issues; 3. Social issues.

A leading humanist scholar, Magtymguly creates a new literary school in the world of his poetry and puts forward valuable political-social, philosophical, humanist, moral, ethical views, ideas about the unity of the people. He cares about the freedom, liberty and well-being of the Turkmen people.

Another valuable aspect of Magtymguly’s poetry, the great master of Eastern poetry in the second half of the 18th century, who continued the work of other great poets whose roots go back to the previous historical periods, is that the poet is able to understand the hidden secrets, the complex rules of society and human life. [1, p. 116-117]

Magtymguly was born into a scholarly family in Hajigowshan, located in the south-western part of Turkmenistan, along the Etrek River. Here he spends most of his life. His father Dovletmammamet Azadi was a well-educated man and a prominent poet of his time. From young ages, Magtymguly began to learn manners, science and education from his father. Then he studied at a village school under the guidance of a mullah named Niyaz Salih. Magtymguly had been eager for work since he was young. He helped his parents closely with household chores. When he reached puberty, he began to practice silversmithing. He later became a master jeweler of his time. Dovlemammet Azadi made every effort to provide higher science and education to his son Magtymguly in accordance with the demands of the times.

According to Magtymguly’s worldview, man is connected with nature.

Together with many other peoples of the East, the Turkmen people are making every effort to gain freedom, independence, and build a state. Turkmen khans, and elders were looking for ways to implement this task, holding talks with neighboring countries, and the Magtymguly family was no exception. Azadi and Magtymguly were father and son, and they participated in all the important activities of the country.

Unlike animals that act on their own free will, a person is able to think, create, and have understanding of certain things based on his mind. Public opinion is made up of people’s perceptions. A person should create goodness and beauty and stay away from harmful and negative actions.

The great poet and thinker expresses in his poems the need for material values in human life and his attitude towards them. Magtymguly believed deeply in people’s ability to perceive good and evil and placed great importance on education and the influence of moral education. That is why he was calling to act in the interest of the people. He widely preached his humanitarian principles.

The poet valued hard work and considered it as a source of peaceful life and wealth. The poet considered hard work to be one of the noblest virtues of man, and considered it one of the main sources of glory and pride. According to Magtymguly, man is a product of the environment. He believed that his character and psychology were nurtured in society. Therefore, according to Magtymguly, with the improvement of the environment, human psychology is also improved, and on the basis of this situation, the society is improved.

Magtymguly was a supporter of a literate, intelligent monarchy. He suggested Alexander the Great as a model of such a literate, intelligent monarch. The great poet gave a vivid and artistic image of the classical state, and also created an image of an educated, fair ruler who consistently implements the principles of justice for the happiness of the people. In such a society, where the principle of friendship rules, there is no enmity between nations. Magtymguly talks about the punishment of Almighty in the last resurrection on people who break the foundation of justice.

The great poet opposes the destructive and murderous war, therefore he advocates a just war against foreign invaders for the freedom of the country.

The society dreamed by Magtymguly is a society where people’s dreams will come true. The great poet and thinker firmly believes in this and expresses in his poems the idea that he will live in a beautiful society and a beautiful country.

Magtymguly is proud of the glorious history and heroic achievements of his ancestors. He dreamed of the flourishing of language, science, and philosophy, and always fought for it. The poet always called on the Turkmen tribes to fight against foreign invaders to protect their homeland. At the same time, he was not indifferent to the fate of other nations, he fought for their rights, freedom, and spiritual wealth. In this he was a true humanist. Thus, patriotism and humanism in Magtymguly’s thought are inextricably linked.

The great poet and sage believed that only a person who truly opposes and fights evil can truly be called a “man” and that good is eternal and can always prevail. Magtymguly hoped that wisdom and justice would prevail.

An advanced man of his time and a great son of his people, Magtymguly was many years ahead of his time in many issues of social thought. In the struggle for social development, he believed that everything should be aimed at satisfying people and creating comfortable living conditions for them. He believed that man is the expression of God.

In the second half of the 18th century, Magtymguly’s works reached the highest level of the development of artistic, scientific, social andphilosophical ideas of Turkmen people. An important and distinctive feature of the poet’s worldview is the desire to confirm human goodness and happiness on earth. Philosophical and sociological views of the great poet and thinker are the prime examples of his comprehensive, encyclopedic thoughts.

Vamberi, a Hungarian traveler who visited Turkmenistan in the 19th century, emphasizes that Magtymguly read all the books and understood all the sciences of the world. [2, p. 279].

In the world where people live, work and create, everything is unique and beautiful. In that world there are brave men, beautiful women and beautiful music. The poet enjoys these beauties and harmony of nature. These things inspire poetry. The world of thoughts of the wise poet Magtymguly Pyragy is endless. Everything that happens in the world interests the poet, makes him think, gives spiritual pleasure. The main thing is that this great poet has great love for his countryand life.

The ideal society of the Turkmen people is the ideal society dreamed of by a thinker. Today, under the support of the Honorable President, our people are fortunate to live in such a society.

Magtymguly Pyragy’s creativity reached the highest level in the development of Turkmen classical literature with its rich meaning and artistry. His poems have not lost their popularity to this day. The greatness of the literary legacy of the wise poet comes alive before our eyes and resounds with new enthusiasm in our time.

  1. History of Turkmenistan. – Ashgabat , 1966.
  2. Vambery A. _ Travel to Central Asia. – M., 1874.

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