Айдогдиева Бахар Ровшеновна
Туркменский государственный университет имени Махтумкули


Aydogdiyeva Bahar Rovshenovna
Turkmen State University named after Magtymguly

Proverbs are a short and concise conclusion of a great experience, absorbing the results of the past. Proverbs and saying have been “walking” with people since ancient times. Their clear rhyming, simple form and short form, artistic means used in their composition, made them stable, quickly remembered and widely used in conversation. Proverbs and sayings, being part of the culture of a particular people, have always retained their meaning and retain it today.

Keywords: foreign language, languages of the world, proverbs, sayings, source of wisdom, tradition, Turkmen people, vocabulary

Рубрика: Филология

Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Айдогдиева Б.Р. Turkmen and italian proverbs reflecting the uniqueness of national traditions // Гуманитарные научные исследования. 2023. № 1 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: https://human.snauka.ru/2023/01/55287 (дата обращения: 14.05.2024).

The nationality of the Turkmen people is reflected in their lifestyle, traditions, history and culture, especially in their spiritual national characteristics.  These national features include proverbs and sayings.  The main task of the proverbs is to show the worldview of the people and give an honest assessment of the truth of the nation.  Narratives are the sayings of the ancestors, which describe the understanding, ways of thinking, and worldview of that or other people, the truth, spiritual character, traditions, beliefs, and customs are reflected in them.  Proverbs and sayings call us to respect the past, to study the sources and origins of folklore, to preserve national values, because they are our modern culture.  Every nation is obliged not only to study and preserve its cultural values, but also to promote these things, encourage the younger generation, reveal their artistry, and explain their reflection on the pages of historical works.  Each work has its origins in ancient times.  Stories are a priceless legacy left to us by our ancestors.  Narratives are ideas that contain the experience of centuries and the common sense of life in this small volume.  They are time-tested and reveal the uniqueness of specific situations.  The immutability of traditions is their permanence and indisputable importance.  Scientist I. M. Snegirev points out: «Nowhere else, apart from fairy tales, is the external and internal life of the people so openly and clearly revealed.»  Proverbs and sayings more clearly reveal the lifestyle, geographical location, history and traditions of one or another community united by a cultural commonality.

The national character of proverbs and sayings is revealed more clearly when comparing different languages.  As it is known, the Italian people and the Turkmen nation are peoples who live in different social and natural conditions and have different history, religion, customs and consciousness.  As it is already known, wisdom and spirit of the people are reflected in their proverbs and proverbs.  On that basis, knowing the proverbs of the ancestors, which are the tales of that or other people, allows not only to better learn the language of that people, but also to understand the character and thinking characteristics of the people.

This quote is a concise and clear result of a great deal of experience.  Proverbs and sayings have been «walking» with people since ancient times.  Their clear rhyming, simple shape, and short form, the artistic means used in their composition made them stable, quickly memorized, and often used in conversation.  Proverbs and sayings, being a part of the culture of a certain people, will always keep their importance and still do.  The fact that proverbs and sayings contain and draw attention to the characteristics characteristic of a certain people at any time remains an important objective.  Proverbs and sayings are considered a treasure trove of information that reflects the linguistic wealth of the Italian and Turkmen people, their life, history, beliefs, customs and traditions like a mirror.

An allusion is a short, often condensed thought that takes the form of a complete sentence and conveys a definite idea.  The word ancestors is a vague idea that defines any life situation.  Unlike proverbs, sayings do not have a direct meaning of wisdom, admonishment, and any situation is limited to an imaginary representation of life.  Proverbs and sayings are very valuable information in the study of people’s historical events, ethnography, life and outlook.  Because learning any foreign language, proverbs, which are one of the artistic means that reveal the culture and life characteristics of that people,  and they can help. Continuing the noble traditions of his ancestors, the book called «Source of wisdom» which was gifted to our people by our Heroic Arkadag is a collection of ancient wisdom and wisdom.  The translation of the Turkmen proverbs included in this book into a foreign language, more specifically the translation of the book «Source of wisdom» into Italian, will strengthen the Turkmen-Italian friendly relations, and Italian readers will be able to get acquainted with this wonderful literary work of our learned friend.  This book has great educational and intellectual value and is especially valuable for young people.  It attracts the attention of the people with whom our common future is concerned and promotes the preservation and growth of our noble origins and our priceless heritage.  Also, the nature, geographical, climate, ecological characteristics, historical development of the people, religion and others have a great influence on the formation, improvement and development of the culture, traditions, and language of any people.  In this regard, our scholar writes in the book «Source of wisdom» of our Heroic Arkadag: «Since ancient times, the Turkmen land has been a captivating force with its beautiful nature, friendly, respectful and harmonious people, sweet music, life-giving and humanitarian rituals, and lively wedding celebrations  – is a country of miracles».

As with the Turkmen people, the Italian people always adjust their actions and behavior according to other people’s expectations.  Even in their own home, they do not feel safe.  In the family, Italian people talk to each other very politely.  Children owe it to their parents and adults to be polite.  In order to understand the home and family relations in Italian culture, that is, the smallest «self» and the smallest «group», it is necessary to study the traditions they have developed over the centuries.  In Italian proverbs, the mutual responsibilities and relationships of parents and children are revealed with clarity.  In the mind of Italians, the concepts of home and family are defined by concepts that are imperishable and eternal.  For example, «Uscendo dalla porta di casa, l’uomo incontra sette nemici», that is, «Leaving the door of the house, a man meets seven enemies».  Another example is «Anche se sei povero e hai bisogna di aiuto, non c’è posto migliore della tua casa» («There is no better place than your own home, even if you are poor and needy»).  In this example, the word «house» is used to mean «family».  This proverb is similar to the Turkmen saying «I will not sleep with my legs stretched out if I am poor…»  Or the proverb «I bambini sono il reflexso dei loro genitori» («Children are the reflection of their parents»), the proverb «See the mother – take the daughter, see the side – tell us» in the Turkmen language, shows the commonality of the two peoples on this issue.  Reveals  In another example, «Se guardi un bambino, conoscerai i suoi genitori», («Look at a child, you will know its parents»), that is, children are similar to their parents not only in terms of their religious beliefs, but also in the upbringing they receive from them.  Its version in the Turkmen language is said to be «Fathers do not die, they live in their children.»  In these examples, it is clear that «own» child and «own» parents are very close to each other in every way.  In Italy, there are many stories about children becoming like their parents.  For example, «Un bambino che non assomiglia a suo padre è il diavolo», that is («The child who does not look like his parents is the devil») or «Le mandorle non crescono nel tempo dei meloni», that is («The melon crop does not grow almonds»).  , these proverbs can be translated as « Come sono i genitori , così sono i bambini « , that is « As the parents are, so are the children « .  Turkmen proverbs «Boy, father, daughter – mother», «What you sow, so shall you reap», «A wolf’s cub will be a wolf» clearly reveal the relationship between parents and children, and they are synonymous with the above Japanese proverbs.  In the Italian proverb «Madre è terra, padre è cielo» («Father Heaven, Mother Earth»), a clear border is drawn between parents.  There are also such borders in Turkmen. For example, «My mother is Kabam, my father is Qiblam», «My father is pleased with God. My mother is pleased with the prophet.»  «Father is a treasure». As can be seen from the proverbs, in the Turkmen and Italian peoples, the spiritual world of a person, a person is a contribution to the urn. The concepts of parents and children, which form the basis of the 11 values ​​of treasure-treasure, are very closely connected, and the continuity of generations is not broken.  It is clear that honor, respect, discipline starts from the family. Despite the fact that there are national characteristics, and uniqueness that are unique to each nation, there are also commonalities. Even if a person is cowardly and appears to be brave on the outside, he is considered worthy of great respect in the minds of Italians.  Setting a goal in front of a person (for example, to be brave), in order to achieve that goal, he tries to match his outer appearance with his inner world. For an Italian, «outer appearance» is considered morally perfect.  Shame for what he has done creates counter-moral sentiments in Italians  it is  The above-mentioned qualities and emotions characteristic of Italians are necessary for them to fulfill their duties before society and between people, to have an honorable name and glory, and a great dignity.  The Italian people have managed to turn even silence into a great art.  The meaning of this tradition5 is translated into proverbs through simple lines:

Parola d’argento, silenzio d’oro («words are silver, silence is gold»);

Non c’è nulla di male nel silenzio – («there is no harm in silence»);

Ascolta due volte, di una volta- «listen twice, say once».

The Turkmen people are distinguished by their eloquence and the tradition of local speech.  The following proverbs fully testify that this is so:

Language is a problem, teeth are a fortress;

A tongue will bring honey, a tongue will bring trouble;

The day of bad language is also bad;

He will kill himself if he keeps his tongue.

In the culture, traditions, etc. of the Turkmen and Italian peoples  along with unique features, commonalities were also found.  These commonalities are revealed through proverbs and sayings of nations.  Diligence, the pursuit of harmony in life, simplicity and custom – the unwritten law.  Self-restraint, feeling and fulfilling one’s duty, respecting the elders, living in a group, love for nature, patriotism – these human values ​​reveal the characteristics of the national character of the Italian and Turkmen people.

  1. Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov. Source of wisdom. Ashgabat, 2016.
  2. Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov. Territory of Turkmen statehood. Ashgabat, 2016.
  3. Allakov.  J. Introduction to Literary Studies. Ashgabat, 1992.
  4. N. Seidov.  Studying of Turkmen folklore. Ashgabat, 2018.

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