УДК 330

РАЗВИТИЕ ПРЕДПРИНИМАТЕЛЬСТВА И БИЗНЕСА В РОССИИ В 2016 ГОДУ

Данилина М.В.1, Любкин С.М.2, Крупенков В.В..3
1Российский экономический университет имени Г. В. Плеханова, Финансовый университет при Правительстве Российской Федерации
2Российский экономический университет имени Г. В. Плеханова
3Российский экономический университет имени Г. В. Плеханова

Аннотация
Статья анализирует статистические данные развития предприятий в России в 2016 году и перспективы их развития на 2017 год. Также в статье представлены основные направления работы Федеральной корпорации развития малых и средних предприятий.

Ключевые слова: бизнес, предприниматель, предприятие, развитие., Россия, экономика


DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENTREPRENEURS AND BUSINESS IN RUSSIA IN 2016

Danilina M.V.1, Lubkin S.M.2, Krupenkov V.V.3
1Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation
2Plekhanov Russian University of Economics
3Plekhanov Russian University of Economics

Abstract
The article analyses the statistical data of the development of the enterprises and business in Russia in 2016 and the perspectives of this sphere in 2017. The article presents the details about the main directions of the activity of the of the Joint Stock Company "Federal Corporation for the Development of Small and Medium Enterprises”.

Keywords: business, development, economics, enterprise, entrepreneur, Russia


Рубрика: Экономика

Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Данилина М.В., Любкин С.М., Крупенков В.В.. Development of the entrepreneurs and business in Russia in 2016 // Гуманитарные научные исследования. 2016. № 12 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://human.snauka.ru/2016/12/18419 (дата обращения: 29.05.2017).

Development of business and enterprises is of a great importance in Russia at the current stage. 1 August 2016 there were 5523765 enterprises registered in Russia. This number included 2594355 enterprises and 2929410 individual entrepreneurs (table 1). According to the criteria of determination the type of the enterprise (table 2), there were 2335579 microenterprises, 238796 small businesses, 19980 medium enterprises. Among individual enterprises there were 2900085 microenterprises, 28953 small businesses and 372 small businesses.

Table 1. The number of enterprises in Russian Federation on 01.08.2016

Total
Enterprises
Total number of enterprises Micro-enterprises

Small business

Medium business

Russian Federation 5,523,765 2,594,355 2,335,579 238,796 19,980
Total
Individual entrepreneurs
Total number of enterprises Micro-enterprises

Small business

Medium business

Russian Federation 5,523,765 2,929,410 2,900,085 28,953 372

Source: Resource center of small business, http://rcsme.ru/ru/statistics

Table 2. Criteria for determination of the type of the enterprise

Categories of enterprises Number of employees

Income of the enterprise

Other criteria

Micro-enterprise < 15 people < 120 bln. roubles - The total share of the participation of the state, the subjects of the Russian Federation, municipalities, public and religious organizations (associations), charities and other funds in the authorized (share) capital (unit trust) of not more than 25%, except for the total stake, which is part of:

- assets of joint-stock investment funds;

- assets of closed mutual investment funds;

- the total property investment partnerships.

- Total share of foreign companies, the total stake owned by one or more organizations that are not SMEs, does not exceed 49% each.

Small enterprise 16 – 100 people < 800 bln. roubles
Medium enterprise 101 – 250 people < 2 bln. roubles

Source: Resource center of small business, http://rcsme.ru/ru/statistics

As of January 1, 2015, according to Rosstat, in the Russian Federation were registered and operated 4.5 million small and medium-sized businesses, which employed more than 18 million people, accounting for 25% of total employment in the economy (Table 3).

The basis of the small and medium enterprises sector are individual entrepreneurs – 2.4 million or 53.3% of all small and medium enterprises and microenterprises – 1.9 million or 41% of all small and medium enterprises. Small businesses account for 5.2% of the total, while the average is 0.3% of the total number of small and medium enterprises. At the same time the micro enterprises and individual entrepreneurs sector employs more than half of all people employed in the SME sector – 55%.

Table 3. Activity of enterprises and individual entrepreneurs, 01.01.2015

Micro-enterprises

Small business

Medium business

Individual entrepreneurs All categories of small and medium enterprises
Number of small and medium enterprises, thousand 1 868,2 235,6 13,7 2 413,8 4 531,3
Percentage of small and medium enterprises of the total, % 41,2 5,2 0,3 53,3 100%
Average number of employees, thousand people 4 431,1 6 358,4 1 585,8 5 645,7 18 021*
Income of small and medium enterprises (SME), bln. roubles 9 699,3 16 692,9 5 027,8 10 447,5 41 867,5

Source: Resource center of small business, http://rcsme.ru/ru/statistics
The future of the Russian economy is largely dependent on the development of SMEs. The development of the state support of this segment becomes a priority, taking into account the difficult situation in the economy. It creates new SME support institutions [2]. According to the Strategy of development of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Russian Federation for the period till 2030 year [3], in 2015 was established the State Institute for the development of small and medium-sized enterprises in the form of the Joint Stock Company “Federal Corporation for the Development of Small and Medium Enterprises”.
At the same time the contribution of small and medium enterprises in general economic indicators in the Russian Federation are significantly lower than in most not only developed but also developing countries. Small and medium enterprises in the Russian Federation are primarily micro  enterprises (95.5 percent of the total number of subjects Small and Medium Enterprises). The number of medium-sized enterprises is relatively small [3].
Small and medium enterprises account for only 5-6 percent of the total assets and 6-7 percent of the total investment in the fixed assets in the whole country. Labour productivity in small and medium sized enterprises in the Russian Federation, according to the Ministry of Economic development of Russia is much lower than the level of developed countries (USA, Japan, European Union countries) in 2-3 times. In recent years, the dynamics of the development of small and medium-sized enterprises is negative. The share of small and medium-sized enterprises turnover in the economy as a whole, according to Federal State Statistics Service, progressively
decreases. The diminishment of all indicators of small and medium-sized enterprises  only in 2014 compared to 2013 was 1.8 percent from 34.2 percent in 2013 to 32.4 percent in 2014 [3].

Specific measures undertaken by the state policy in social and economic spheres did not fully ensure the interests of small and medium-sized enterprises. Such measures as cancellation of tax privileges for the business property of the payers of the special tax regimes, the introduction of the trade tax and a number of other measures did not bring the planned improvements.
One of the priority directions of the state policy in the small and medium-sized enterprises sector at the present stage is the application and development to a new level of the measures and support tools for the small and medium-sized enterprises, which will be implemented within the framework of the Joint Stock Company “Federal Corporation for the Development of Small and Medium Enterprises” ‘s activities. In particular, the Corporation will be provided the decision of the following tasks: providing financial, infrastructural, legal, methodological and other support to small and medium-sized enterprises; attracting Russian and foreign funds
and international organizations in support of small and medium-sized enterprises; organization of system of information, marketing, financial and legal support of investment projects, implemented by small and medium-sized enterprises; organization of activities aimed to increase the share of procurement of goods, works and services of certain kinds of legal entities in small and medium-sized enterprises;
provision of in conjunction with specific customers, determined by the Government of the Russian Federation, and bodies of the state power of the subjects of the Russian Federation toward the measures to the development of small and medium-sized enterprises; maintenance of interaction with public authorities of the Russian Federation, local authorities, other bodies and organizations in order to support small and medium-sized enterprises; providing improved support for small and medium-entrepreneurship. At the same time the Corporation will perform as a system integrator of the support measures for small and medium-sized enterprises.


References
  1. Resource center of small business, http://rcsme.ru/ru/statistics
  2. Perspectives of the SME in 2016, Small business.ru portal, http://smallbusiness.ru/work/work/7653/
  3. Правительство Российской Федерации, Распоряжение от 2 июня 2016 г. No 1083 – р, Москва
  4. Баранников А.Л., Данилина М.В. Инвестиционный потенциал и основ-ные “точки роста” для обеспечения устойчивого развития российской экономики Материалы III Международной научно-практической конференции: Устойчивое развитие российской экономики 2016.С.7-11
  5. Данилина М.В. Современная ситуация в инвестиционной сфере в России / Экономический анализ: теория и практика. 2004. № 7.
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  7. Данилина М.В., Щербакова К.С. Анализ инновационной политики Российской Федерации на современном этапе / Гуманитарные научные исследования. 2014. № 10 (38). С. 167-173.
  8. Данилина М.В. Экономическое и политическое взаимодействие России и Евросоюза / Национальные интересы: приоритеты и безопасность. 2011. № 23. С. 59-69.
  9. Nadtochy Y.V., Danilina M.V., Klochko E.N., Gurieva L.K., Bazhenov R.I., Bakharev V.V. Economic factors and conditions for the transformation of the educational services market in the context of globalization
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