The sharp increase in the number of cars in recent years has caused the Russian motorists need to change a new car consumer properties by making changes to its structure and appearance. This trend was tyunig from English tuning ie conducting fine tuning of polishing or mechanical mechanism, such as a vehicle.
This practice exists in developed countries, so worldwide known tuning company engaged in operational development of the automobile, Daimler – Carlsson Autotechnik and the Brabus, as well as the company BMW – Alpina, Lumma and Hamann [1, p.53].
Car Tuning is done in order to change the product’s functionality. The car is Durables. The most important of its consumer properties – vehicle operating costs, residual value, ease of use, beautiful and modern appearance. In addition, unlike many other machinery, car those traditionally isolated groups of properties that are important to him just for vehicle: performance properties, reliability and safety.
Safety requirements determined by technical regulations and other regulations, are taken into account in the design and vehicle upgrades and controlled during its operation. In the car there are the following groups of security features: active, passive, and ecological disaster. However, the reliability and security in practice is rarely the target of car tuning. Most car upgrade to improve the performance properties that characterize it precisely as a means of transportation [2, p.55].
The aim is to change the car refinement and improvement of the product’s functionality. In the most general case, the consumer properties characterize the car as durable goods. The most important of them – this is the price, performance, operating costs, aesthetics, good ergonomics, comfort.
However, in contrast to all other objects, car traditionally includes such groups properties that are important to him just for the vehicle, – a performance properties, reliability and safety. They all have long and extensively studied and described in the literature industry. Let us briefly consider some of them.
Performance characteristics of the car characterize it as a means of transportation, these include: – dynamic traction; – Dynamic brake; – Fuel efficiency; – Sustainability; – Handling; – Cross-country; – Ride.
Reliability describes the car as a complex technical system and is determined by properties such as: – reliability; – Durability; – Maintainability; – Retentive.
Safety requirements determined by technical regulations and other regulations, they must be taken into account in the design of the car and modernization, as well as monitored during its operation. In the car there are the following groups of security features: – active safety – passive safety; – Post-accident safety; – environmental Safety.
In the design and manufacture of various vehicle requirements often collide with each other, and to implement them in full is impossible. Therefore, the vehicle design process is based on the acceptance of compromises that do not always meet the expectations of the owner, corresponding to its purpose and its requirements. In addition, it should be remembered that the operation of the vehicle is part of the “driver-vehicle-road-environment” and all its qualities are manifested in conjunction with elements of this system. Therefore, the importance of specific performance in assessing the quality or effectiveness of a car depends on the conditions in which this property is evident, ie. E. The operating conditions. Operating conditions also described and studied, they are determined by traffic, transport and climatic conditions [3, p.41].
To calculate the efficiency of tuning the performance indicators are convenient because they are objectively characterized by parameters such as: – an increase in productivity (eg, dynamics, controllability, permeability); – An increase in life of the vehicle or its systems (properties of reliability and safety); – Reduction of operating costs (fuel economy and maintainability).
However, there are some consumer properties, which, compared with the traditional performance, are not so clear in the analysis of the effectiveness of tuning. As an example, the so-called “styling” – external tuning body.
Outside of the car relates to the field of aesthetics and meets two, sometimes opposite, directions – follow the classical laws of beauty and try to cater to fashion. If we add to this their own preferences drivers sometimes got such “masterpieces”, the economic feasibility of which can not speak. In terms of technology work, three groups of foreign body can be identified modernization – rework or replacement of the paint (LCP); installation of additional equipment (wind or decorative elements); modernization of auxiliary members of the body (toning of glasses, replacement of door handles, lighting replacement, etc.)
The most important and time consuming areas of body tuning – is the modernization of the paint. This is largely due to the fact that the main task of the LCP still not decorative, and engineering – the protection of the body from corrosion. With this task quite successfully cope and manage the traditional single-layer and single-color coatings. However, the consumer wants to stand out on the roads, it has led to the appearance of colors with additional effects – metallic, pearl, ksirallik, chameleon, candy. They all have a multilayer structure, it is at least one lower layer of base paint and an outer layer of varnish (varnish “candy”, for example, translucent with color shade). The main property of these products – the so-called flop effect when the viewing angle changes when changing ink saturation, and in some cases ( “chameleon” paint) – and color. You have to repaint the whole body to produce these effects on a conventional car. However, there are other ways to refine the LPC – a multicolor car coloring traditional monophonic enamel, applying decorative bands, placing drawings, including original paintings in the technique of “airbrush”.
Besides car repainting, there are more efficient ways to refine the appearance of – application of decorative films (including vinyl), Sticker, and the use of various special coatings (such as “liquid rubber”).
When calculating the economics of such activities is a difficulty rating to benefit from the costs of materials, payment for work and loss while the vehicle is in idle tuners. Nevertheless, we can assume that some benefit might have otherwise styling would not have received the mass distribution among our youth.
With the variety of ways and methods of vehicle improvements in service, great importance is the problem of calculating the economic performance upgrades and tuning vehicles. Be aware of the relationship of measures to modernize the car. For example: if you increase the power of the engine, it is necessary to establish a more powerful traction and drive wheels (half-line); sometimes install larger diameter wheels entails reworking wheeled niches and changing the transmission gear ratios; installation of disk brake mechanisms of drum instead requires completion of a lay brake. In view of these points when choosing tuning technology, should always take into account the increase in the vehicle weight and cost of the work.
Currently on the agenda of relevant issues of energy efficiency of vehicles, which are closely linked with the objectives of resource conservation and environmental safety. At the same time great importance is the operational property of the car as fuel economy. As the name implies, eco-tuning helps to improve the environment. This is achieved by reducing fuel consumption. And this is achieved without sacrificing engine performance or driving dynamics. On average, eco-tuning reduces fuel consumption by 10-20%.
Equally important are the tuning and other events aimed at improving the environment of the car: reduction of harmful substances in exhaust gases; reduced tire wear; Decrease of wear of the friction materials and other friction surfaces; increasing tightness of units and units of the car.
When planning a reduction of vehicle impact on the environment, it is desirable to separately highlight events that may interest cost vehicle owners. It is important to encourage eco-tuning, as part of the development costs of environmental problems can be solved by the savings from reduced fuel and materials consumption. For example, reduction of harmful substances in the exhaust gases is a result of lower fuel consumption; reduced tire wear saves by increasing resource and tire costs for their restoration and repair.
The calculation of the efficiency of tuning aimed at improving environmental performance, has certain difficulties, particularly if the vehicle works not accompanied by the modernization resursosberegayushimi results, for example, fuel consumption decrease or increase tire life.
The degree of motorization and environmental tuning have different values for each region. Particularly relevant vehicle environmental problems for the Samara Region and automotive “capital” of the Volga region – the city of Togliatti. To solve the problem of increasing the environmental performance of cars by its modernization during the operation, it is suggested the preparation and implementation of a comprehensive program “Environmental tuning”, with the development of teaching materials and tuning kits. To encourage the introduction of environmental enterprises Car tuning, including it in its production program, it is proposed to provide benefits and compensation at the regional level. This initiative will reduce the environmental damage from cars in the region and to develop a set of measures intended to compensate for environmental damage to the natural environment. It is also possible way to stimulate environmental tuning will be the introduction of a special environmental fee that will create the preconditions for motivating owners of cars to carry out ecological tuning.
When calculating the effective tuning can be used for calculating the efficiency of such a measure as the NPV or Net Present Value, which is sometimes also referred to as NPV means that the net present value.
Net present value – the sum of all positive and negative discounted cash flows of the project. In other words, it is the sum of the discounted net cash flows, that is, income, less the amount of discounted investment.
The formula for the calculation of this index is as follows:
NPV = PV – I, (1)
PV – the sum of the discounted net cash flows;
I – the sum of the discounted investments.
In the case of the tuning PV will be the sum of the discounted cash flows expected from carrying out tuning cars, and I will be the sum of costs of tuning.
The procedure for calculation of the indicators will consist of the following stages:
The first step is to determine the amount of investments in the project. In this case, it will be necessary to determine the size of the costs of car tuning.
In the second step calculates the present value of expected cash flows from realization of the project on car tuning. There may also be taken into account by reducing the cost of improving consumer properties of the car, and getting car owner subjective benefits of changing the appearance of the car. Formed by the amount of income for each period is discounted [4, p.2].
The third step is to determine the difference between the present value of income and discounted investment costs of the project. The difference between them and the value is the net present value.
The NPV calculation theory determined that in order for the project to be effective, it has brought a minimum rate of return is necessary that the sum of the discounted income exceeded the amount of discounted investment.
Therefore, tuning will be effective if the net present value is greater than zero.
If the net present value is less than zero, then carry out vehicle tuning is not necessary. Finally, if the net present value will be zero tuning car can carry out, but it does not bring the income of the car owner.
A similar scheme in the assessment of the effectiveness of tuning can be used such indicators as profitability index (PI), the internal rate of return (IRR), and so on.
It should be noted that the above calculations are only valid for the rational tuning, ie when the owner of the car, holding his tuning focuses on objective measures of improvement of consumer properties of a vehicle after tuning. In many countries and especially in Russia tuning called “national sport” and is associated with giving the car a unique appearance and performance properties, often worsening the economic operation of the vehicle parameters in comparison with its serial counterparts. Therefore, when calculating the economic effects of tuning is not necessary to consider the economic categories such as fuel savings and reduced operating costs, and the rate of increase of the valuation of unique appearance and performance properties of the vehicle sensed by the user.
Conventional economic effect of tuning in this case will be determined by the formula.
Eyg = Esub – Zt, rub (2)
Esub – subjective assessment of the owner of the car to improve consumer properties of the vehicle in terms of value;
Zt – total costs of tuning.
In determining the economic benefit of tuning is also necessary to take into account the economic effect that appears when the tuning firms and is to increase the volume of incoming taxes and duties to the budgets of different levels of work tuning firms.
In conclusion, it should be noted that currently tuning in Russia developed significantly and is not represented by large tuning studio provides services for car tuning and engaged in the production of aftermarket kits. Also observed drop in the volume of services in tuning cars in comparison with previous periods.
herefore, the theme of development of sphere of services in tuning cars is relevant and will increase not only the satisfaction of car owners but also give a significant economic effect on the economy of regions and Russia as a whole.
Статья подготовлена в рамках работы над исследовательским проектом «К 50-летию ВАЗа: Влияние автомобилизации на социально-экономическое развитие Поволжья», поддержанным грантом Российского гуманитарного научного фонда № 16-12-63003 по результатам регионального конкурса «Волжские земли в истории и культуре России – 2016, Самарская область».
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