УДК 372.881.1

СМЕШАННЫЕ МЕТОДИКИ ОБУЧЕНИЯ ИНОЯЗЫЧНОЙ КОММУНИКАТИВНОЙ КОМПЕТЕНЦИИ

Комиссаров Андрей Романович
Школа лингвистики и психологии
кандидат педагогических наук, преподаватель

Аннотация
В статье рассматриваются некоторые аспекты смешанной методики обучения иноязычной коммуникативной компетенции. В настоящее время данная методика развивается в различных продуктивных направлениях.

Ключевые слова: виды чтения, неязыковые вузы, обучение иностранным языкам, смешанные методики


MIXED METHODS OF TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGE COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE

Komissarov Andrej Romanovich
School of Linguistics and Psychology
PhD in Pedagogy, lecturer

Abstract
The article discusses some aspects of the mixed method of teaching foreign language communicative competence. At present, this technique is developed in a variety of productive ways.

Keywords: foreign language teaching, mixed methods, non-linguistic higher education institutions, types of reading


Рубрика: Педагогика

Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Комиссаров А.Р. Mixed methods of teaching foreign language communicative competence // Гуманитарные научные исследования. 2015. № 11 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://human.snauka.ru/2015/11/13095 (дата обращения: 27.05.2017).

In modern methodology of teaching foreign languages as well as many years ago, the problem of finding and selecting the most effective and efficient methods of teaching foreign languages, corresponding to modern conditions of education which meet the requirements of the standards of modern education remains unsolved.

Methodological system of teaching is understood as an ordered set of interrelated and interdependent methods, forms and means of planning and carrying out the educational process and its monitoring, analysis, adjustment, aimed at increasing efficiency of learning [1].

Methods of teaching are an essential component of the educational process. Without the use of appropriate methods it is impossible to achieve this goal, to actualize the intended content to fill the process of learning with cognitive activity [2, p. 9].

In domestic methodology of teaching foreign languages the term “method”, in addition to refer to the entire system or just learning areas may denote individual elements of the system (method of teaching phonetics, grammar, etc.) [3].

The national methodologists (KA Ganshina, I.A. Gruzinskaya , A.A. Lyubarskaya) believed that the practical goal of learning is to develop all kinds of speech activity with a primary learning to read. As for the educational and pedagogical tasks, the goal of education was that of patriotism. Therefore, the texts contained information about our country and its labor achievements, but not about the country where the language under study is spoken [4].

The problems of the content of learning were not sufficiently developed among the representatives of mixed method, and the problem of vocabulary selection was out of the question. Most of the representatives the mixed method recognized division of material into productive and receptive, assuming that receptive acquisition is a stage receptive to productive one. F. Aronshteyn argued that receptive language acquisition should take place consciously, with the participation of the native language, and productive – on the basis of imitation, by analogy as a result of monolingual exercises [Ibid].

Characteristic of mixed method is a recommendation for teaching grammar. As a rule, at the initial stage grammar was being studied “practically”, i.e. without understanding and selection of rules, i.e. intuitively. At the second stage all the representatives considered it necessary to analyze the phenomena and to rely on the rules. At the third stage, it was recommended to carry out the systematization of previously studied material.

The mixed method is characterized by the recognition of oral introductory course, on the feasibility of which almost all of the German and Soviet representatives of this direction wrote. A characteristic feature of the mixed method is the attitude of its representatives to the mother tongue. The majority of to both western and domestic methodologists allowed the native language as a means of semantization and control. They allowed translation, but certainly not at the very beginning.

In the middle and senior stages the representatives of this method are close to the views of textual and translation method. At these stages not only a conscious learning of grammar takes place, but also the systematization of grammatical knowledge. It is typical in this respect to work on reading skills.

There are two types of reading: analytical (explanatory) and cursory (home), and the first was put above. The process of work on the text is composed of three phases. The first stage consisted in the removal of the difficulties associated with the content. The teacher briefly, in an accessible form retold the content of the text, and then checked the students’ understanding of the content of the story by asking questions. Then followed phonetics drilling, i.e. reading out the text by a teacher, students, and the transition to the analysis of the text, during which vocabulary, grammar were worked up through exercises. The last stage is the control of mastering the language and translation of the material. It is easy to notice that the text is not a source of information but the focus of the work on the language.

The second type of reading (cursory), according to representatives of the mixed method should be reading mostly with direct understanding as texts contain language material learned. However, in this case it is not excluded from the analysis of the individual parts of the text.

It should be noted that this work on the text brings together a mixed method with translation method.

As for the development of oral speech, the representatives of the methodological direction did not express new interesting ideas. All the work was reduced to question-and-answer exercises, paraphrases and memorizing poems.

At deficiency of classroom time, in particular, we are talking about students of non-linguistic higher education institutions, where special attention is paid to professional-oriented subjects there is not an easy task before teachers – to teach a foreign language in a short time [5]. Thus it is necessary to take into account the fact that most of the students who entered non-linguistic higher education institutions do not have good school language background, and often teachers have to begin practically from the very beginning. In order that graduates acquire the necessary knowledge and skills, classroom assignment is considerably expanded by bringing in virtual environment and information technologies [6].

The development of blended/mixed learning program includes the following basic steps:

Determine the purpose. Blended learning is a technology, costs, specific “tuning” of students and teachers. This is a large-scale introduction in the educational process, and it should not be a tribute to fashion but solve specific problems. Such problem could be: improvement in overall performance, level of education and technological literacy, automation of the assessment, formation of a special world view, etc.

Select the model of blended learning. There are six models of mixed/blended learning with different goals, needs, and overall costs: a) Face-to-Face Driver (model, aimed at the reinforcement of the traditional full-time study). Teachers personally give the basic volume of the curriculum as necessary including online learning as an accessory. This model often includes classroom and lab computers; b) Rotation Model. There is an alternation of the traditional full-time classroom teaching and online independent learning in an individual mode (for example, via the internet links according to the plan, drawn up by the teacher, on a special website); c) Flex Model. For the most part the online platform is used, the teacher provides assistance to students as required, from time to time works with small groups or with one student individually; d) Online Lab. Online platform is used for the entire course of study in the classroom. This type of learning takes place under the guidance and supervision of a teacher. This program can be combined with the traditional one part of the regular schedule; e) Self-Blend Model. The student is free to decide which of the traditional (Brick and Mortar) courses it is necessary to supplement with remote online classes; f) Online Driver Model. Basically, this model involves online learning, through the platform and remote contact with the teacher. However, optional or at the request, test classroom courses can be added and meetings with the teacher or mentor.

Write a program. It is necessary to thoroughly analyze and prepare the program and distribute the course material for full-time, distance / online units.

It’s necessary to understand which components of the learning process can be improved with the help of modern technologies and programs.

Time limits should be set for each topic and determine the pace of work. It should be understood, in what sequence and how often remote self-study lessons are replaced with live discussions.

It also requires developing or digitizing teaching materials: to make lab materials, quizzes, handouts, form media library, record videos, prepare presentations, and so on.

Then choose the online resources and support programs that will be involved in learning. It is possible to develop a program for learning, or adapt online services for the curriculum for teamwork and project management.

Train the staff online teaching. It is necessary to start with the establishment of rules that may look, for example, like this: « a teacher undertakes to answer the students’ letters within 24 or 48 hours Teachers also need to realize that blended learning does not at all diminish their credibility and turns them into “operators” of education. They remain the key motivating figures. As part of the blended learning teachers need to master the online program, to actively use the Internet, interactive technologies and keep blogs.

As regards the rules for students, they need clear regulations so that learning remains balanced. For example, the establishment of the rule that visiting classroom activities and passing the online tests is strictly required. Is necessary to combine independence and work at their own pace with the understanding that the gap in the subject automatically requires more frequent visits to classroom courses [7].

One of the reliable ways to rationalize this process is the use of rational methods of teaching foreign language communicative competence of students of non-linguistic specialties implemented on the basis of a two-level electronic textbook. The fact is that currently used in the practice of English language teaching in the educational institutions of not language profile textbooks and teaching aids quickly become outdated, many of them in terms of content and teaching plan are not designed for mastering by students foreign language communicative competence, thus revealing the contradiction between the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standards to the level of command of foreign language communicative competence by higher education institutions graduates and their means of learning [8].

To realize the objectives we need to create favorable external conditions corresponding to the inner aspirations of students on mastering a foreign language and culture, to actualize personal and professional needs of students in learning a foreign language and culture, to develop the students’ metacognitive strategies for mastering a foreign language, develop competencies of self-education [9]. As for learning technologies, technology-based systems should be created with the learner in mind. We should create space in which the learner can develop; take adequate account of the dialogic nature of language and learning; stimulate the reflective processes that are central to learner autonomy; support the planning, monitoring and evaluation of learning.

Mixed method involves the formation of the communicative competence, which consists of language, speech, subject, socio-cultural, educational and compensatory competencies [10-12]. Motivational aspect plays an important role in foreign language acquisition. The central for mixed method is learning through educational communication activities, approximate to the real, taking into account individual characteristics of students, creation of real communication situations by setting verbal and cognitive tasks. Methodical provision of a foreign language in the classroom has become the subject of extensive research, which continues today.


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