УДК 10.02.00

ОСОБЕННОСТИ МЕЖКУЛЬТУРНОЙ КОММУНИКАЦИИ В ПЕРЕГОВОРНОМ ПРОЦЕССЕ

Устинова Людмила Петровна1, Абдуллин Рустам М.2
1Набережночелнинский филиал Казанского национального исследовательского технического университета им. А.Н. Туполева-КАИ, кандидат филол. наук, заведующий кафедрой гуманитарных и социальных дисциплин
2Набережночелнинский филиал Казанского национального исследовательского технического университета им. А.Н. Туполева-КАИ, студент

Аннотация
Aвторы данной статьи рассматривают важные аспекты межкультурной коммуникации и приводят обзор различных стилей коммуникации в зависимости от национальных традиций стран.

Ключевые слова: межкультурная коммуникация, переговорный процесс, стили коммуникации


SOME FEATURES OF CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION IN NEGOTIATION PROCESS

Ustinova Ludmila Petrovna1, Abdullin Rustam M.2
1Kazan National Reseach Technical University named after A. N. Tupolev, Branch Naberezhniye Chelny, PhD, head of the department of humanities and social sciences
2Kazan National Reseach Technical University named after A. N. Tupolev, Branch Naberezhniye Chelny, student

Abstract
The authors of the present article consider important aspects of the сross-cultural communication process and give an overview of different communication styles, depending on the traditions of the country.

Рубрика: Филология

Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Устинова Л.П., Абдуллин Р.М. Some features of cross-cultural communication in negotiation process // Гуманитарные научные исследования. 2015. № 5. Ч. 2 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://human.snauka.ru/2015/05/11154 (дата обращения: 29.09.2017).

A constantly extending international exchange increases an extreme relevance of cultural competence studying, which is  important  for the participants of the speech interaction process in different fields of professional activity.

One of the most important aspects of bachelor-students’ training within the KNRTU-KAI – KAMAZ Cluster is a psychological readiness for communication as well as communication ability in the negotiation process. Knowing cultural traditions of different countries and necessary etiquette simplifies communication and ensures a successful cooperation with foreign companies.

It is well known that specifics and complexity of the cross cultural communication problems  are connected with conditions of  negotiations, national cultural stereotypes of thinking and behavior within the  situations of professional communication. In the article we try to consider some important aspects of negotiation process, including distance, eye- and physical contacts, greetings, some ways of verbal communication.

Eye contact during negotiations has  different meanings in various countries: looking straight in the eyes is a sign of confidence in the USA and England  while in Japan and China it is considered as a sign of roughness and disrespect.

Touch and distance are also important because people in Europe and   North America keep a certain distance and a touch is usually acceptable only among friends. During negotiations in Japan  people keep the distance of 4 foots[ 6 ], touch as any other physical contact is acceptable  only between close friends and family members. In  South America people are very “harassed”  therefore negotiations are conducted with a very short distance.
In different cultures there is different attitude to time: a famous expression  “time is money” is true to the  western countries (China and Japan) where people are very punctual,  however, in the South America and countries of the South Europe   punctuality is not an urgency sign.

Shaking hands, as a traditional business greeting,  is not acceptable in some countries between people of an opposite sex. A soft handshake can be considered as a sign of weakness, while a strong   handshake can be considered as a sign of aggression.

Among the main European negotiation styles are French, English, German, which have some special features. According to V.I. Truchachev [4,  с. 152] the French negotiation style has the following specific features:

It isn’t acceptable to address to the interlocutor by name if only he didn’t ask about it:  “monsieur”, addressing to the man  and “madam” addressing to the woman. Men shake hands as a rule and business negotiations  begin at 11 a.m., business talks start only after a cup of coffee,  the preference is given to wine for all occasions.

If your French partner suddenly started to speak English or Russian you can expect receiving the biggest concession. In general French businessmen prepare for the forthcoming negotiations very carefully: they study all aspects and consequences of arriving offers, this is one of the reasons for the slowed-down rate of negotiations.

They skillfully defend this or that principle or position, but aren’t inclined to the bargaining and don’t like to face unexpected changes in positions during negotiations. Members of the French delegation pay more attention to preliminary arrangements and prefer to discuss the questions in advance. In comparison with Americans, French are less free and independent at  final decisions making. [2, с. 106 ]

Speaking about some interesting aspects the English negotiating style [ 5, с. 63 ] one must take into account the following features: traditionally negotiations begin with discussion of weather, sports, etc.  High professional level and punctuality are the rigid rule in Great Britain and having come into a contact, you get not only the present business, but also a basis for a long and beneficial business relationship. Traditionally they avoid categorical statements or denials, using a variety of introduction:  “It seems to me”, “I think”, “Probably”, etc. and they avoid acute angles during negotiations. British partners consider self-control as the main advantage of character that is why don’t  be afraid to be silent, because behavior is considered to be rough when a person speaks too much.  Ability to listen to the interlocutor patiently, without objecting it,  not always means a consent in Britain.

British make decisions more slowly, than French, but it is possible to rely on the word of honor of your British partners,  which are rather flexible and willingly respond to an initiative of the partner during negotiations.

The German negotiating style is characterized by some important features as well [4, с. 155 ]. The Germans have a reputation of the nation with a good character: they handle  honesty and efficiency with high professionalism and unconditional implementation of assumed liabilities, which promote adjustment of long-term business relations with the German firms.

Being punctual, you deserve respect of your German colleagues at once, time of the forthcoming meeting is surely coordinated, it is possible to coordinate it by phone.

The ceremony of representation and acquaintance corresponds to the international rules and includes handshake and exchange of business cards.It is necessary to address by last name, for example, “Mister (Herr) Schmidt” because  during negotiations Germans are quite professional and official.

In  conclusion of the meeting your German partners will insist on rigid implementation of the accepted obligations, and payment of high penalties in case of their non-performance; They can demand granting the considerable guarantee period on delivered goods and also pledge in  case of delivery of substandard goods.

Having considered important features of the organization and carrying out the international business negotiations and taking into account sociocultural identity and the main lines of national negotiation styles, it is necessary to use the main achievements in the field of cross-cultural business communication for a successful negotiation process in the conditions of integration of national economic, political and cultural systems. Success in business depends on the competent organization of negotiations, which are an important component of human activity.

Having reviewed the French, English and German styles of negotiation we came to the conclusion, that their common features are punctuality, a high  professional level, reliability, respecting the rules. Therefore when carrying out preparatory work including organizational and theoretical stages, it is necessary to consider national and cultural features of the participants.


References
  1. Зинченко В.Г.,. Зусман В.Г. Межкультурная коммуникация. М., 2007 с. 91.
  2. Мицич П. Как проводить деловые беседы. М., 2008 с. 106
  3. Форсайт П., Успешные переговоры. М., 2007 с. 71
  4. Трухачев В.И., Лякишева И.Н., Михайлова К.Ю. Международные деловые переговоры. с. 147 – 155, Ст., 2006.
  5. Лебедева М.М. Вам предстоят переговоры. М., 2006. с. 63.
  6. http://tenge.ucoz.kz/publ/13-1-0-158


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