УДК 33.336

Буряк Виктор Владимирович
Крымский федеральный университет им. В.И. Вернадского
г. Симферополь, кандидат философских наук, доцент кафедры философии естествознания, философский факультет Таврической академии

DIGITAL ECONOMY: DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGIES IN EDUCATION

Buryak Viktor Vladimirovich
V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University
Simferopol, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Natural Science Philosophy, Faculty of Philosophy, Taurida Academy

Abstract
The paper surveys the problems of educational support for the strategy of digitalization of the Russian economy. This strategy relies on achieving a technological breakthrough in all areas of social and economic transformation of society. At the core of the technological breakthrough is the availability of necessary competencies. Moreover, positive changes in higher education must occur in an accelerated manner in compliance with the technological breakthrough imperative. Successful execution of the stages of the state economic digitization program in Russia involves the creation of such a system of higher learning which is based upon the so called “disruptive technologies”. However such a system cannot function autonomously from the general background of disruptive innovations that help establish a long-term favorable educational trend of permanent innovative additional education. Disruptive innovation ideology promotes the accelerated introduction of specific disruptive technologies, particularly in higher education. Besides, radical changes occurring in educational programs and specialized topics that are important in the nationwide context of preparation and making a technological breakthrough must be examined in the context of a sharp increase in economic competition (global, sectoral and corporate). In fact, the reformatting of the educational space happens in such a way that under conditions of the fourth industrial revolution the "fastest" universities have competitive advantages. The accelerated mode of introducing innovations into the education system contributes in a direct and indirect way to the radical changes in the digital economy. It is clear that investments in the innovative educational technologies are a key resource for the scientific and technological progress. However there must be implemented an interdisciplinary approach to provide an effective creation of complex educational programs. The information society still keeps evolving, and the recruitment of educational resources of disruptive technologies is an urgent necessity for the implementation of significant socio-economic projects.

Keywords: breakthrough innovations in education, digital economy, disruptive innovation, disruptive technologies, Innovation


Рубрика: Философия

Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Буряк В.В. Digital economy: disruptive technologies in education // Гуманитарные научные исследования. 2019. № 4 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://human.snauka.ru/2019/04/25742 (дата обращения: 14.04.2019).

Introduction

Organizational, economic and technological innovations essentially depend both on the volume of financial investments and the competencies of people involved in their implementation. Teaching staff working in various divisions of higher education is required to design their own projects aimed at reformatting pedagogical technologies in the context of systemic transformations of the Russian society. Of most importance is providing an effective training for specialists of different profiles [1; 2; 3; 4]. The economic situation in the globalized markets for goods and services implies an increased competition among transnational brands. Former technologies used in the production of consumer goods are becoming less popular, because their key properties tend to lose their consumer value in a shorter time period. Innovations appear to become a key reason for radical transformations in this sphere. The relevant topic of innovation development in the economy and society as a whole was first articulated by Clayton M. Christensen. Coined by him and now widely used expression “disruptive innovation” appeared in an academic publication back in 1995 [6]. In his popular book The Innovator’s Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail (1997) he offered the analysis of the “disruptive innovation model” [7]. This methodological tool is recruited by some economists to describe the mechanisms for the introduction of innovative technologies. In his books, Christensen examines the complex idea of innovation business in the broadest sense [8; 9; 10]. The meaning of such expressions as disruptive innovations and disruptive technologies can have broad semantics depending on the context. Disruptive technologies can be understood in a sense of “breakthrough technologies” (i.e. biochemical discoveries in the pesticide industry); “subversive technologies” (the use of stem cells in medicine); “pushy technologies” (mobile internet); “cross-border technologies” (production of mini-satellites of nano-technological scale with low investments and short R&D cycle), etc. Critical for disruptive technologies is the effect of significant acceleration in both production and quality of particular goods or services.

In recent years, there emerged new trends in the world on the basis of an electronically interdependent economic unit, when the disruption of previously stable functional and industrial relations at one end of the planet renders a significant impact on other players. Thanks to disruptive technologies, innovations reach the most remote places of the world and help introduce the more efficient and flexible forms of organization for activities, including the sphere of education. When translating “disruptive innovations” into Russian, the term normally receives the connotations close to the phrase “subversive innovations”. In the present paper, the preferred translation can be better reflected in the notion of “breakthrough innovations”. The more fitting translation can take such a form as “breakthrough/subversive technologies” [5]. In terms of understanding the prospects of the innovative model of education, disruptive innovation is such an innovative practice that encourages creating an additional market value for educational services, especially in the field of higher education. Thus, in the field of university education, disruptive technologies contribute to the process of creative destruction of the available market network, ousting other educational projects from the planetary market. The fundamental reasons underlying the transformation of the higher education system in each its segment, are determined by technological and economic factors.The situation, characterized by the emergence of new opportunities for “players” on the market of high-tech services, is not unique.

Successful organizations always keep track of ongoing innovations. Their business environment does not allow for an instant restructuring, as this would demand significant investment and human resources.At the same time, every organization claiming a leadership position must constantly reflect on the value system (the present one and the alternatives). The point is that disruptive innovations can in fact instantly destroy the old value system of a “young firm”.At the same time, a conservative, stable organization is capable of defendign its positions for some time (i.e. despite the exponential growth of the Internet audience, television still exists). Two strategies can be used here: a survival under highly competitive conditions and a priority of getting prosperous on the market. Christensen believes that a disruptive innovation has to do with a critically different product or service that appeals to a new set of customers.

Innovations and high technologies establish new service properties. In that way, educational institutions find their unique consumers. It is the solvent consumers that create a steady demand for educational services. To meet this demand, adequate investments are needed, including those made into high technologies. Thanks to the mass introduction of such technologies, the innovative business environment keeps expanding. We are approaching the economic stage when innovative technologies are going to become the tool associated with the term disruptive technologies. Recruiting the tools and the whole ecosystem of disruptive innovations to improve the state’s competitive advantages shows that innovations by themselves give additional resources to help realize human potential. It is necessary to be faster than other competitors when introducing high-tech disruptive technologies. Of importance is finding their economic efficiency on time to achieve the goals. The list of such disruptive technologies comprises the P2P business, software as a service, web-services and real-time computations, grid computing, electronic tagging and other location-based services [12].

Breakthrough technologies in the university education today

New landmarks and technologies force the executors to constantly revise their production models in order to stay competitive [11]. Total digitization becomes grounds for a disruptive technology breakthrough. Christian Kromme showed that the technosphere develops by following the same evolutionary stages as the biosphere. The world works at the biological level, the technological level and at the level of all humanity. They are interlinked and complementary to each other. Internetized digital technologies in fact unite humanity into one organism, “metacognitome”. This “supermind” transforms fundamentally the ways we think and see the world. The moralistic imperative by Rousseau-Thoreau “back to nature” today, when the technosphere expands in an exponential way, becomes obviously irrelevant. According to Kromme, humanification is, in the first place, about the use of technological innovations in our daily life [13]. Such technologies are already being implemented in education. Students today already live in a real high-tech world. Because each student is unique in psychoemotional and cognitive terms, the process of education is gradually becoming more and more creative by its nature.

Self-rating of a student, establishing meaningful goals while being educated and tracking progress in achieving these goals are now being placed at a transparent and scorable technological platform. Modern digital technologies make it possible to build a new base for efficient education of students.Sonny Magan’s pedagogical method, the T3 Framework, helps teachers in classifying the complexity of students’ training which can be seen as having translational, transformational or transcendent level. Identification and operationalization of levels are done with the use of specialized technological applications having a certain quality of information impact, to achieve desired results in the process of learning [14]. Exponential digitization of the economy urges consumers of goods to more often rely on information technologies. The paradoxical slogan “digitize or die” indicates a strategically important managerial imperative used by company leaders when implementing a particular business model [16]. So, according to Nicolas Windpassinger, there is even nothing to choose between, or, rather, the choice can be described as “black and white”: digitize or die. This is true, in the first place, for the sphere of higher education. Lydia Rose remarks that modern disruptive communication technologies are needed for being implemented in higher education institutions, since they contribute to the efficiency of education.

Online cloud computing in the fields of interaction and communication (social networks and online information resources) are among the necessary technologies for the modern higher education. For the practical reorganization of the educational process, it is necessary to reconstruct the pedagogical environment and introduce new technologies (disruptive communications technologies) [15].

Disruptive innovations present a broad trend of advancing for high quality products. The TBD system format (Technology, Behaviour and Data) is an example of such an application of disruptive technologies. The TBD model allows corporations to maintain a long-term success in a selected production niche. For this reason, the TBD format is becoming an effective guide for making effective decisions when implementing rational investment strategies. It is obvious that disruptive innovations / technologies present a competitive threat for the formerly used “closing / conservative technologies”. It is clear that the process of introduction of disruptive technologies has both positive and negative consequences, whose societal effects and applicability can be verified by means of monitoring the available economic activity. Good historical examples of disruptive technologies are as follows: in 1865 telephones began to replace telegraphs; in the early 19th century in Western Europe ships with steam engine (steamers) took the place of the sailing fleet; in the middle of the 20th century, devices based on semiconductors became much more in demand than electric vacuum devices; already at the beginning of the 21st century, digital cameras began to oust film cameras from the seemingly conservative camera market; electronic mail finally replaced today the “paper-envelope” mail widely used in the 19th and 20th centuries. In his work “Disruptive technologies” (2017) Paul Armstrong suggests to reflect on the road of technological development and mark the necessary steps which must be undertaken by each responsible businessman so that the newest technologies (disruptive technologies) were at a maximal demand. Armstrong examines the symbiosis between knowledge and methods that helps them to effectively interact when recruiting the resources provided by disruptive technologies, with the aim to strengthen one’s basic positions when doing any sort of business [5]. An increased spread of technological innovations in education is largely determined by the phenomenon of creative destruction. Innovation (breakthrough / subversive) technologies are the most important universal resource for the socio-economic progress [17].

Conclusion.

The paper provides the analysis of relevant problems related to studying the premises of introducing innovations into the sphere of education. To successfully implement the program of digitization in Russian economy, radical reforms in the field of higher education must be done. That is why the use of the disruptive innovation model in pedagogical activities will help create a new market demand for educational services. Wide spread of technological innovations is going to help transform the society as it is. The interdisciplinary space of interacting high-tech factors in the field of higher education is a prioritized object of philosophical reflection.

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