УДК 37

ИНДУКТИВНЫЙ ИЛИ ДЕДУКТИВНЫЙ ПОДХОД К ПРЕПОДАВАНИЮ ГРАММАТИКЕ

Туланбоева Дилдорахон Тулкинжоновна
Наманганский государственный университет
студент магистратуры английский лингвистики

Аннотация
Преподавание грамматики - это процесс, который является проблемой для многих преподавателей языков во всем мире. Целью данного исследования является поиск возможных эффектов индуктивного и дедуктивного подходов, используемых для преподавания грамматики. Поскольку некоторые преподаватели языка не хотят игнорировать традиционные методы обучения на уроках грамматики, данное исследование сфокусировано на результатах использования индуктивных и дедуктивных методов на уроках грамматики классов EFL.

Ключевые слова: грамматика, дедуктивный, индуктивный, методы обучения


BOTTOM-UP OR TOP-DOWN APPROACH TO GRAMMAR TEACHING

Tulanboyeva Dildoraxon Tulkinjon qizi
Namangan state university
Student of Master’s degree in English linguistics

Abstract
Teaching grammar is a process, which has been a problem for many language teachers around the world. The aim of this action research is to search for probable effects of both bottom-up and top-down approaches to be used to teach grammar. Since some language teachers do not want to ignore traditional teaching methods in grammar classes, the present study deals with the results of using bottom-up and top-down approaches in grammar lessons of EFL classes.

Рубрика: Педагогика

Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Туланбоева Д.Т. Bottom-up or top-down approach to grammar teaching // Гуманитарные научные исследования. 2019. № 6 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://human.snauka.ru/2019/06/25969 (дата обращения: 16.09.2020).

Many people, including language teachers hear the word “grammar” and think of a fixed set of word forms and rules of usage. Byrd (1998) points out grammar is central to the teaching and learning of language. It is also one of the difficult aspects to teach well. Diana Larsen-Freeman (2015) insists grammar is not just about form. While grammar involves form, in order to communicate, language users also need to know the meaning of the forms and when to use them appropriately. In fact, it is sometimes not the form, but the meaning or appropriate use of a grammatical structure. Grammar is partly the study of what forms are possible in a language and is a description of the rules that govern a language’s sentences are formed (Thornbury, 1999).

English language teachers and methodologists discuss and argue about numerous issues such as: to teach or not to teach grammar, teaching grammar separately or integrating it and choosing appropriate teaching methods. Today choosing the best way to teach grammar is very disputable. So the aim of the article is to analyze and find effective ways of grammar teaching. In fact, there are two main ways of teaching grammar: top-down and bottom-up. Both of them are used almost in all grammar classes. Recent theoretical researches show that bottom-up approach is more suitable to grammar teaching classes.. As it balances communicative competence of learners, while the other learners who are taught by top-down approach likely to face some difficulties to use the language in context.

English grammar is notoriously difficult to teach for both native and foreign language speakers. There are so many various approaches to teaching grammar that different generations of teachers have used. For the last few years traditional strategies of teaching gave way to more creative methods. One of them is teaching grammar through bottom-up approach. The bottom-up approach involves presenting examples that illustrate a specific concept and expecting students  to notice how the concept works from these examples. No explanation of the concept is given beforehand and the expectation is that students learn to recognize the rules of grammar in a more natural way during their own reading and writing. Discovering grammar and how these rules work in a sentence allow for easier retention of a concept. The main goal of the bottom-up teaching method is the retention of grammar concepts (Different methods of teaching grammar, 2015). Thornbury (1999) supports that contrary to top down approach which moves from the more general to the more specific, a bottom-up approach starts with specifics and end with a rule, in which we make specific observations, detect patterns, formulate hypothesis and draw conclusions. Patricia Byrd (1998) thinks the teachers who focus on traditional methods explain the forms and rules and then drill students on them. It results in bored, disaffected students who can produce correct forms on exercises and tests, but consistently make errors in real language environment. Jon Hird (2015) also remarks that the learner centered nature of bottom-up teaching is often seen as advantageous as the leaner is more active in the learning process rather than being a passive recipient. This increased engagement may help the learner to develop deeper understanding and help fix the language being learned. This can also promote the strategy of ‘noticing’ in the student and enhance learner autonomy and motivation.

All approaches of grammar teaching can offer some advantages, but the biggest problem is the role of the teacher and student. It is preferred to use student-centered approaches rather than teacher-centered ones by current language teaching norms. For instance, top down classroom, it may also be named as ‘discovery learning, is considered as teacher-centered, because the teacher is more active, while the learners stay as only recipients. Conversely,  bottom-up approach is much more student-centered and makes the use of a strategy known as ‘noticing’. Instead of giving explanation to a concept and following this explanation, the teacher presents students with many examples showing how the concept is used. The intent is for learners to ‘notice’ how the concept works by the help of examples. As a result of ‘noticing’ the rules students will usually be more involved in the learning experience and tend to participate more actively when a bottom-up approach is used. Furthermore, students gain deeper understanding and rely on their critical thinking to figure out the language when learning process occurs on the basis of bottom-up approach.

As Thornbury (1999) stresses the rules learners discover for themselves are more likely to fit their existing mental structure than rules they have been presented with. This in turn will make the rules more meaningful, memorable and serviceable. The use of a bottom-up approach improves learners’ memorability. Moreover, it is an approach which favors pattern recognition and problem-solving abilities that it is particularly suitable for learners who like this kind of challenge. Students will be more attentive and more motivated. In addition, Grammar books present forms separately and apart from one another. While this form of learning and teaching is practical and necessary, it is in opposition to how language is really used and understood. Taking a bottom-up approach to EFL learning and teaching can help unravel some of the complexities involved in becoming proficient speaker of English. Ultimately, it’s the teacher’s responsibility to show EFL students how they can take a bottom-up approach to their independent study of English.


References
  1. Byrd,P. (1998) Grammar in the foreign language classroom: Making principled choices in Modules for the Professional Preparation of Teaching Assistants in Foreign LanguagesWashington,DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
  2. Larsen-Freeman,D., Murcia, C. (2015) The Grammar Book: Form, Meaning, and Use for English language Teachers  Heinle ELT
  3. Thornbury, S. (1999) How to Teach Grammar. Harlow: Longman
  4. Different methods of teaching grammar, 2015 retrieved from: https://www.inklyo.com/methods-of-teaching-grammar/
  5. Hird, J.  (2015) Inductive and deductive grammar teaching: what is it, and does it work?OxfordUniversity Press ELT


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