УДК 33.336

ИСКУССТВЕННЫЙ ИНТЕЛЛЕКТ ДЛЯ ЦИФРОВОЙ ЭКОНОМИКИ РОССИИ

Буряк Виктор Владимирович
Крымский федеральный университет им. В.И. Вернадского
г. Симферополь, кандидат философских наук, доцент кафедры философии естествознания, философский факультет Таврической академии

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE FOR THE DIGITAL ECONOMY OF RUSSIA

Buryak Viktor Vladimirovich
V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University
Simferopol, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Natural Science Philosophy, Faculty of Philosophy, Taurida Academy

Abstract
The paper considers the problems associated with the implementation of the ongoing state program aimed at creating a new high-tech economic trend to foster the successful development of the Russian Federation. The comprehensive transformation of the world economic space is getting accelerated under conditions of tough competition between corporations and countries. In the context of the information society, Artificial Intelligence (AI), being one of the high-tech drivers for the sixth technological paradigm, is an operational basis for implementing the cognitive tools useful in carrying out important social-economic projects. The broad introduction of AI into all spheres of the national economy is going to eventually encounter various social-economic problems (partial employment, conditions for the creation of new jobs, etc.). Since the development of the digital economy is a complex multi-level process, the AI development appeared to become a subject of extensive interdisciplinary research.

Keywords: artificial intelligence (AI), digital economy, unemployment


Рубрика: Экономика

Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Буряк В.В. Artificial Intelligence for the Digital Economy of Russia // Гуманитарные научные исследования. 2018. № 12 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://human.snauka.ru/2018/12/25308 (дата обращения: 18.12.2018).

Introduction

As a high-tech resource of the digital era, artificial intelligence (AI) is going to significantly accelerate the “digital economy” which is an important segment of the national economy. Being a multi-tasking tool, AI is a key technology that largely determines the pace and direction of development of human civilization in the coming decades. In the future, the welfare of citizens and states will obviously depend on the level of development of information technologies, availability of systems equipped with high-performance modules based on advanced artificial intelligence, robotics, nano- and biotechnologies, and the high-precision production of new materials with unique properties [12; 14;8;6]. The modern globalized society undergoes various changes at a tremendous rate. Today, and especially tomorrow, being a result of corporate and interstate competition, there will be presented inventions, and even some techno-scientific trends which are likely to radically change all industrial production, transportation, the system of targeted investments, communication between people and organizations. This trend is seen as a strategic one by many state leaders. According to Vladimir Putin, it is necessary for Russia to become the best in such high-tech spheres as: medicine, IT technologies, robotics and to be among leaders in many other areas in order to bring about a true technological breakthrough [4].

Consideration of relevant problems related to the implementation of complex State programs (including the development and effective use of artificial intelligence systems) in the course of formation of a new high-performance economy is becoming more and more popular [5]. The widespread introduction of high-tech systems with a high proportion of AI is a strategically important direction of development within the framework of the Russian economy. However, the uneven technological development of Russia objectively depends on the availability of administrative and economic barriers, and they must first be effectively dealt with [6].

For successful realization of highly complex initiatives in the context of implementation of complex public projects directly related to the program of the digital economy, systems of artificial intelligence appear to be indispensable. Such popular in the media concepts as “digital age”, “digital economy”, “artificial intelligence”, “robotization”, “blockchain”, “technological and organizational innovations” and many others reflect a radical shift in the modern people worldview and, even more, in the organizational environment of managers who are in charge of implementing effective state policy. The phenomenon of digital revolution has an objective origin and is determined by the need for accelerated effective adaptation to the new techno-scientific paradigm[2]. For the implementation of the digital economy program, artificial intelligence systems appear to be a universal tool, both in terms of logistics and infrastructural transformations. Besides these highly specialized applications, the potential of AI can be used for large-scale complex socio-economic projects. Nonlinear introduction of artificial intelligence systems will objectively contribute to aggravation of socio-economic contradictions in society (the phenomenon of a significant increase in mass unemployment, uneven distribution of strategically important information and management resources). The problems of AI effective use in the context of the sixth technological paradigm will inevitably appear in the epistemological focus of interdisciplinary research [3].

The meaning of AI in the context of the fourth industrial revolution

To more effectively design the algorithms for regulatory functions in the digital economy for different levels of business process management, it is important to analyze the socio-economic indicators of growth in the national economy. The roadmap of the “Digital Economy” program includes such a factor as technical modeling. This is not an option exclusively related to the sphere of information technologies, but rather a part of competencies of a manager, not an engineer. The introduction of the “Digital Economy” program offers extrapolation of development methods in the agro-industrial, health recreation and tourist complexes, as well as in medicine, insurance industry, territorial-economic system in the regions, organized in several stages [1].

These and other multifunctional tasks can be helped by implementing artificial intelligence. The AI project itself and its different versions have been the subject of interdisciplinary research for already several decades.Due to its importance, artificial intelligence appears to be a historically objective high-tech project. The goal of AI developers is the creation of self-learning intelligent machines and their integration in a network (either on local or global scale). Various devices equipped with AI are designed and manufactured on a platform created with the help of high-performance scientific and technological tools by specialists in such related fields as mathematics, computer science, and cognitive science. Artificial intelligence systems are effectively used in specialized applied fields (equipment manufacturing, motor industry, education programs, creation of test systems, internet search engines, instant messengers, weather forecasting). One of the most important functions of artificial intelligence is the realization of such creative forms of activity which are normally considered purely human. Among other things, artificial intelligence systems are high-tech accelerators for the accelerated development of the digital economy [9]. Technologists and inventors working in the field of AI design and construction are trying to foresee the ways productive activity of people might be carried out in the nearest future, with intelligent machines being widely in demand and, to a certain extent, involved into the process of formation of the natural and social reality. Amir Husain points out that artificial intelligence has already been playing an increasingly important role in our society [7]. The complex problems associated with the use of various equipment and systems incorporating artificial intelligence are already becoming very relevant. Specialists and experts who work in the Google Corporation, the universities of Oxford, Stanford and Montreal, as well as the Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence (AI2), are currently engaged into solving the issues directly related to the production and efficient use of AI [11]. It is coming the epochal turning point in world history, as emergent technologies contribute to the radical transformation of not only the infrastructure of modern economic sphere, but also of the very way the goods and services are being produced. Under conditions of the digital economy a new anthropological problem will inevitably arise – how the nature of man will be redefined. Within the conceptual framework of the “fourth industrial revolution” hypothesis it is expected to formulate a specific understanding of the roles attributed to artificial intelligence (AI), robotics and other high-tech tools used in today’s society. The fourth industrial revolution (Fourth age) brings about a specific intellectual space, where it is essential to reflect on the pressing social and economic problems that humanity will inevitably face in the near future. Novel methods of monitoring are required to help predict the dynamics of such high-tech trends as industrial production of advanced artificial intelligence systems, continuous machine learning, automation of unified and standardized human activities, creative computer programs, creation of artificial life forms (synthetic biology), bioethics, neuroethics, AI ethics, technological singularity [10].

The fourth industrial revolution: the robotization of economics, total unemployment threat

The problem of a substantial increase of unemployment under conditions of the fourth industrial revolution is becoming increasingly urgent. The question of how to overcome the social and economic contradictions characteristic for the modern era of scientific and technological transformation of society is becoming one of the most pressing problems for experts, managers, politicians and other categories of citizens. Of high importance is the problem of effective adaptation of citizens to a radically transforming society, especially given the rapidly changing parameters of communication (the presence of Wi-Fi – a communicative wireless LAN technology on the platform of IEEE 802.11 standards). This includes smartphones, various options for augmented reality, etc. These obvious techno-communicative trends mark the search for new, more effective symbiotic economic relations. Researchers of the problems related to the wide introduction of advanced intellectual technologies point out that these trends imply an organizational upgrade of higher education, effective pension reform, and a high-tech transformation of state policy. Eventually, the AI and extremely broad robotization will contribute to the emergence of a completely new approach to economics [13].

Currently hot topics related to the widespread use of artificial intelligence are getting multiplied, at least in quantitative terms. Issues related to the ethical, economic and other aspects of artificial intelligence application, the prospects for its implementation, risks and competition under conditions of modern civilization, receive ambiguous interpretations [8]. The fact is that many “people from the street” often ask: How is artificial intelligence goint to change our daily life? Reflection on the historical moment when many jobs will be occupied by high-performance robots will eventually become an objective reality. However, it should be noted that the AI implementation is going to create a situation when there will be a huge number of new jobs, where people will use available artificial intelligence capacities. Hence, both direct and indirect use of AI in the labor market and the way in which the relevant business processes are getting transformed, and, in particular, the development of whole new industries, is an actual trend of research for economists, social theorists and futurologists.

Relevant problems related to studying the prospects of broad AI introduction are as follows: application of artificial intelligence systems as complementary or alternative to natural intelligence; the potential for a radical change in the social and economic landscape of the labor market, due to the fact that artificial intelligence systems will actively influence the development of such industries as: business; safety of industrial production and transport highways, ensuring the safety of unmanned vehicles; the use of robots in everyday life (tutoring, supervision of children); enhancing the economic indicators of transnational technology companies through the use of AI [13]. Automation of production processes and communicative transactions through the development of artificial intelligence systems renders a positive impact on the globalized society. “Smart machines” will inevitably shape the labor market in the era of the fourth industrial revolution. Some experts in economics are quite optimistic about the creation of new high-tech jobs, while the other are fairly pessimistic when referring the risks of unemployment and permanent loss of jobs. Despite the difference in interpretations of the forthcoming robotization of the world economy, interdisciplinary studies indicate that the developed economies will lose hundreds of millions of jobs in the near future. The topic is of high relevance. Todd Kelsey, the author of the analytical study “Surfing the Tsunami”, provides in his book a methodological introduction to the topic of “artificial intelligence and the phenomenon of unemployment”. His interdisciplinary research is based on empirically valid data and ongoing global trends. The central idea of his study is that we are already in a high need of opening a discussion on the analysis of risks related to the introduction of AI into classical economic activities. He describes the three main scenarios for a high-tech future: 1) adaptation of the economy to a permanently changing situation; 2) adoption of a new economic reality (while it is necessary to effectively use existing program and organizational tools and multipurpose platforms related to AI); 3) engagement into the process of developing advanced artificial intelligence [9].

Conclusion

The project of intensified digitalization of the Russian economy will inevitably encounter the already mentioned problems: a clash with the new economic reality; adjustment to the permanently changing situation in high-tech economic activity; mass unemployment phenomenon. The current study provided the analysis of topical issues related to the creation of new technological and organizational momentum for the successful economic development of Russia. It is considered, in particular, the prospect of using artificial intelligence in the sphere of economic activity. It is shown that under conditions of actively developing information era, the infrastructure and communicative parameters of the economy will be largely determined by the use of artificial intelligence systems. The widespread introduction of AI is going to inevitably exacerbate the already pressing social and economic contradictions. Among them an increase in spare time and its positive structuring, and difficulties in creating new jobs.

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