УДК 349.41


Липски Станислав Анджеевич
Государственный университет по землеустройству
заведующий кафедрой земельного права, доктор экономических наук, доцент

Развитие рыночных отношений привело к распространению этих отношений и на недвижимые вещи. При совершении сделок с недвижимостью весьма важно государственное регулирование. Специфичность конкретного вида недвижимых объектов и степень развития рыночных отношений в том или ином секторе рынка влияют на формы и методы такого регулирования. Наибольшее число регуляторов применяется на рынке земель сельскохозяйственного назначения, а наиболее проблемным его сегментом являются земельные доли.


Lipski Stanislav Andzheevich
State University of land use planning
Head of the chair of land law, doctor of economic sciences, docent

The transition to market economy has caused the spread of these relations and to immovable property. In the real estate deals is very important to state regulation. Forms and methods of such regulation depend on the specificity of a particular type of real estate objects and development of market relations in the relevant sector of the market. The greatest number of adjusting mechanisms are using in the market of agricultural land. The land shares are a most problematic segment.

Keywords: forest, land, land shares, law, real estate, reform, residential real estate, transaction

Рубрика: Право

Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Липски С.А. The transactions on market of real estate in modern Russia: the role of the state // Гуманитарные научные исследования. 2014. № 5 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://human.snauka.ru/2014/05/6862 (дата обращения: 29.05.2017).


In modern economy, the real estate performs three major functions: 1) the means of production, 2) the subject of personal consumption (for the stay, leisure, cultural activities etc.), 3) the means of accumulation.The real estate is a key economic component. It is accounting for more than half the national wealth [1]. In the Soviet period the civil turnover of a significant part of property (land and other natural resources) was not permitted. The transition to a market economy had caused the spread of these relations on the real estate [2, 3].

But any market (especially the market of property, which is a benefit and a source of income) has a “bottlenecks”, which requires the state regulation to eliminate distortions.Such distortions are monopoly, insufficient attention to protection of environmental, vulnerability of interests of certain social groups [4].

I. Sectors and stages in development of the real estate market in modern Russia

Forms of state regulation the market of real estate depends on two main factors.

The first of them is a question about a value for society of those or other types of immovable properties and its specific when they are involved in market turnover.

The second of them is the extent (stage) of development of market relations in the specific segment and the presence of self-regulation mechanisms:

The stage (A) – when the market of real estate and its legal framework is not yet, but the principal decision on transition to market relations in this sphere was accepted.

The stage (B) – when the necessary legal base has been created, but the market relations have not formed.

The stage (C) – when the privatization of property was held and the basic legal provisions adopted (for example, constitutional provisions). But the special federal laws and other regulations which are governing the execution of transactions still no.

The stage (D) – the market is in the development stage.

The stage (E) – market was formed. Such market was establishing: 1) the stable ratio of supply and demand, 2) the market level of price at real estate.

The modern real estate market is segmented as follows.

a) The part of agricultural lands was transferred to common share ownership workers of collective farms and state farms in the early 90. Thisisveryspecificmarketoflandshares.

b) The agricultural lands that have not been privatized for various reasons, as well as non-agricultural lands used by agricultural organizations. The special Federal law (specific rules) is regulating turnover of lands in this and previous sectors.

c) The land plots of private farms, gardeners and other plots of the population are very specific land sector. They not included in the previous segments. Their turnover is regulating by the general rules of the civil and land legislation.

d) The lands of settlements and other territories destined for construction.

e) The Land on which are located forests and water bodies.

f) The subsoil plots.

g) The residential property.

h) The industrial and warehouse real estate.

i) The office property.

j) The movable objects, which are considered immovable by law. 

II. The land market

Land is a basic element of real estate. It is only place for stay all nations and generations. Land is a factor which directly or indirectly involved in the production of all other goods and services in any field of business. In agriculture sphere land is a key means of production and an important condition of ensuring food security [5]. In addition, land is an important component of the natural complex, which dependent on other components (atmosphere, hydrosphere) and, in turn, affect to them. The feature of the land market is the target use of land which is compulsory for all users. Thisistypicalforallsectors.

The specifics of the object of such transactions (land plots or land shares) are causes for the special rules regulation at land market, including the participation state in transactions with land.

So the seller of the land plot of agricultural purpose is obliged to notify in written form the highest Executive body of state power of a subject of the Russian Federation’s about its intention to sell this land plot (the law of the subject of the Russian Federation can establish that such notice should be sent to the local authority).

The additional restrictions (special regulations) are setting in respect of certain areas (for example, land plots of agricultural purpose) and for the circle of participants of such transactions (for example, foreign nationals cannot own land plots of agricultural purpose or in border areas).

The state registration of transactions with land plots is legal compulsory. Some land plots withdrawn from turnover or limited in turnover.

The transactions with land (purchase, sale, lease, mortgage and other) have a mixed legal regime. They are regulated by both civil and land legislation.

This is illustrated by the example of sale agricultural land, divided into land shares. The rule about possible to transfer lands of collective and state farms into the collective ownership of the citizens was in the “land” law (“On land reform”, 1990). But the actual mass privatization of these lands was regulated by decrees of the President of the Russian Federation land-legal orientation, adopted in 1991-1993. Then (1994) part one of the civil code came into force. It settled the issues of ownership, use and disposal of common property. In 1996 part two of the civil code was adopted. It regulates the issues as contracts of sale in general (§ 1 Chapter 30) and contracts of sale of real estate in particular (§ 2 Chapter 30) [6, 7]. But in 2001 the Land code was adopted [8]. It set a number of features of sale of land plots (article 37). Finally in 2003 the law about turnover of agricultural land came into force [9, 10]. It introduced special regime of trade of these lands and the procedures which are priority before the norms of these codes.

In some cases the norms of civil law and land law complement each other [11, 12]. For example, general rules that the objects of civil law rights may be limited in circulation or withdrawn from circulation, are contained in the civil code (article 129), but specific lists of the respective land plots and the degree of restrictions on the turnover is defined in the land code (article 27).

The same ratio is observed in respect of particular land-legal transactions. For example, the land code in addition to the provisions of the civil code, established the special features of sale of the land plots (article 37) and its lease (article 22).

Thus, the seller when concluding the contract of sale of a land plot must provide the buyer the information about the encumbrances of the land plot and restrictions of its use [13].

A number of conditions of the contract of sale of the land plot are not valid in virtue of the provisions of article 37 of the Land code. These are the conditions which are establishing the right of the seller to purchase the land plots back in their own, or restrict further disposal of the land plot.

For regulation of transactions with land plots the state is using as direct controls (restrictions, prohibitions, registration of rights and transactions) and also indirect controls. For example, it is the reduction of time and financial transactions costs through the integration of information systems and simplification of registration and recording of real estate [14, 15].

The differentiation of land rights in contemporary Russia and eviction intermediate land titles which originating from 2001 are affecting at the land market too [16]. These measures also depend by the state land policy.

III. The turnover of agricultural land plots

The greatest number of adjusting mechanisms are using in the market of agricultural land. Now the state uses the following mechanisms in regulating the turnover of agricultural land plots [17].

a) The important task was and remains the preservation of agricultural land in the sphere of agricultural production. The need to maintain the targeted use of land plots is one of the basic principles of the land law.

b) The law about turnover of agricultural land is protecting these lands from foreign capital. The principle of this law is the special procedure for granting land to foreigners (only a rent). Even if a foreign person became owner of the agricultural land legally (for example, as a result of inheritance), this owner should sell these land during the year.

c) At the turn of XX-XXI centuries, the domestic market of agricultural land was in the formative stage, when the disadvantages of growth and the distortions were inevitable. Therefore the state was needed of the mechanism to prevent the economically unjust transactions. This mechanism is the priority right of the state (or the municipality) to redeem agricultural land if these will be put on sale.

d) The important regulator of land turnover is to limit the excessive concentration of areas. This regulator suppresses the monopolistic manifestations (an owner, concentrating in their hands a great part of the agricultural land, can dictate the prices on the local market, also he can influence on level of pay for workers in the agricultural production).

e) The law about turnover of agricultural land established that a land plots may not be less than the minimum size permitted by the state.

IV. The land shares

Now the turnover of land shares became the most problematic on land market. The total area of the land shares is 107, 4 million hectares [18] (53% of all agricultural lands). This is a very significant segment in modern agricultural land-use.

The formation of land shares should lead to an increase the degree of mobility in the relevant sector of the land market. But in practice such shares became the obstacle in the development of market. The formation of land shares, should are simplifying self-regulating in the sphere of agricultural land use. But in real, vice versa, it was canning of the land use and its problems.

The state’s position in the issue of land shares changed repeatedly. First, all of the 90, the capacity to commit any kinds of transactions on alienation of land shares was expanding. In this period legislation was allowing their sale to third parties without any limitations of such transactions in favor of the other co-owners or agricultural organizations. However, after adoption in 2002 of the law on turnover of agricultural lands the situation is developing in the opposite direction. The rights on land shares were limited by this act. In 2005 legislator is making a number of amendments to this act. Such amendments actually are deprived owners of land shares of their pre-existing rights.  Now he can only bequeath their land share, to refuse from it and to pass it on to another co-owner or farm. The owner of the shares, who wants to use it as in the 90s, should distinguish it in the land plot.

In result, the unclaimed land shares appeared (the total area of 25 million hectares). To solve this problem, the legislator introduced in 2011 mechanism which allows transmission such land shares in municipal property (in court order). Butthisraisessomedoubts.

a) With legal position – the ability expropriate land only for the fact that the owner for a long time elects a variant as dispose of their property – is it correctly?

b) With moral position – the state gave farmer a land, but now changed his mind and take back.

c) With economic positions – can whether the municipality to organize rational use of such land? Will not arise whether conflicts between them and agricultural organizations, which use in practice relevant land?

V. Other real estate

The principle about unity of destiny land and facilities which strongly associated with land is crucial for other types of real estate. According to this principle all strongly associated with land objects follow the destiny of the land plot.

Now forests and isolated water objects is no considered as independent component property. In an earlier period (before 2006) they were real estate. This gave rise to some ambiguity in the legal status of such objects. For example, forests (standing timber) were related to immovable property, but harvested wood was as movable property. Now the forest is the “belonging”, which follows for fate of “main thing” – the land plot. Respectively, the disconnecting affiliation from the main thing is a phenomenon quite common. Therefore, since 2006 the forest legislation has divided the concept of a forest as a single system into two parts: 1) the forest plot and 2) forest plantations [19].

The all subsoil within the boundaries of the territory of the Russian Federation is state owned. Subsoil plots are not subject to purchase, sale, gift, inheritance, deposit. But the subsoil use rights may be alienated or transferred from one person to another. The special mining law regulates the use of subsoil. But, in addition, land law gives the owner of the land plot the right to use for their own needs existing on the land plot of common minerals.

The state regulation of the market of residential and non-residential property includes such universal regulators as cadastral registration, registration of the rights, tax regulators. The participation of the state in development of infrastructure for same objects to some extent also can be considered as the method of state regulation in this sphere. It is impacting on functionality and cost of such objects.

The state is used specific regulators for regulate turnover of movable objects, recognized immovable under the law (aircraft and sea vessels).


The regulation of real estate market by the state must evolve taking into account the changes in the relevant legislation and provide solution of tasks connected with the implementation rights to immovable property. It must also provide free pricing of real estate, investment, solution of the housing problem and fair taxation.

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