УДК 94(47)

ТОРГОВЫЕ ДОМА И ТОВАРИЩЕСТВА В ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИХ СВЯЗЯХ ПОВОЛЖЬЯ В НАЧАЛЕ XX ВЕКА

Толкачева Татьяна Вячеславовна
Самарский институт (филиал) федерального государственного бюджетного образовательного учреждения высшего профессионального образования «Российский экономический университет им. Г.В. Плеханова»
преподаватель кафедры социально-гуманитарных и естественнонаучных дисциплин

Аннотация
В статье представлены результаты исследования роли торговых товариществ и домов в развитии экономических отношений Поволжья в начале ХХ века. Особое внимание уделено влиянию купеческого сословия на объект исследования.

TRADING HOUSES AND PARTNERSHIPS IN ECONOMIC RELATIONS VOLGA REGION IN THE EARLY OF THE 20 CENTURY

Tolkacheva Tatyana Vjacheslavovna
Samara Institute of Plekhanov Russian University of Economics
senior lecturer of the Department of Social, Humanities and Natural Sciences

Abstract
The article is devoted to the role of firms and partnerships in the economical contacts in the beginning of the XX century. Special attention is given to the merchant class.

Keywords: cost, industry, lease, merchant class, oil, Reforms, tradingrailway, Volga


Рубрика: История

Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Толкачева Т.В. Trading houses and partnerships in economic relations volga region in the early of the 20 century // Гуманитарные научные исследования. 2014. № 5 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://human.snauka.ru/2014/05/6594 (дата обращения: 30.09.2017).

The article is devoted to the role of firms and partnerships in the economical contacts  in the beginning of the XX century. Special attention is given to the merchant class. The research is carried out in the problem and chronological sense, with the application of cliometric methods of the historical and historiographic narrative material studying [1. P.145]. Not only general scientific but also special and historical, historiographic and source study research methods are used.

In the beginning of the 20 century was published many studies on the economic development of the country. In 1902 was published researchs of N.A. Rozhkov and S.A. Prosbin [2]. These studies focus on the problems of cities and villages in the prerevolutionary period; and focus on history of the development of trade and industry from the Kievan Rus period to the second half of the XIX century. P. Ivanov in his book about the rights of Russian merchants attached great importance for the trade as one of the major reasons for people’s welfare, and merchants in as “trading people.”  That trade was the starting point for the emergence of a large number Trading Houses of and partnerships. Trading House is large trading company dealing commercial transactions in a wide range of goods, using own and attracted capital. Trading houses often performed other economic transactions, working closely together with the manufacturers of the goods.

The purpose of this study is research of the Trading Houses and companies in the economic relations in the early 20 century.

The end of the 19 century – beginning of the 20 century was new period that has initiated development of new historical problems in the the economic development of pre-revolutionary Russia. Study of the post-reform period in the history of Russian merchants is the basis of researches of A.A. Galagan, V.I. Bovykin, M.L. Gavlin. Development of all-Russian grain market is the basis of researches of N.L. Klein, T.M. Kitanina, N.F. Tagirova. The actual problems of the relationship between the city and province is the basis of researches of M.V. Rodnov [2].

There are lesser known moments in the history of the trading and industrial relation between Samara and Ufa regions. At the same time trading and industrial relation between regions has a great influence on the Russian and regional markets.

Several socio-economic factors have influenced on the relationship between Samara and Ufa: the abolition of serfdom in 1861, construction of the Samara-Ufa distance of Orenburg railroad in the 80s. of the 19 century. In the beginning of the 20 century continued economic growth, which began in the second half of the 19 century.  Begins active trading interaction between Samara and Ufa. Merchants were the main trading estate. Samara Merchant Bank documents confirm this fact. “Remittance books” of 1914  recorded information about money remittance of the Ufa merchants through Samara Merchant Bank. Transferable amount of money varies from 165 rubles to five thousand rubles.

In the beginning of the 20 century were registered about 38 Trading Houses and partnerships. In the first half of the 19 century  begins to form the Volga-Ural industrial region where the oil production [3]. This fact had a great influence on the development of relations between Samara and Ufa. One of the largest oil partnerships was “Oil partnership of the brothers Nobel”. Central office of this partnership located in St. Pererburg. “Oil partnership of the brothers Nobel” collaborated with several companies and individuals of Samara and Ufa [4]. “Trading House of Chelyshov and sons”  was one of the regulars clients. “Trading House of Chelyshov and sons” he bought kerosene, which cost 1 rub. 30 kop. per pood. Kerosene used for repair work on the railroad. Chelyshovy were known merchant family in Samara. Dmitry Ermilovich was a founder of   ”Trading House of Chelyshov and sons”. His son Mikhail Dmitrievich  arrived to Samara in the 80s of the 19 century. In the beginning of the 20 century working capital of their company was 700 000 rub. M.D. Chelyshov was a deputy of the III State Duma in 1907-1912, and he was member of the Samara city Duma. “Trading House of Chelyshov and sons” has a branch in Ufa, that traded flour and millet in the region. Cargo transported by Samara-Ufa railway. Austrian merchant Alfred Josef Maximilian Vakano Von Vello engaged in the food industry. He arrived to Samara in the 70s of the 19 century. In 1881 Zhiguli Brewery was founded.  Alfred Josef Maximilian Vakano rented the land from the city for plant construction. Zhiguli Beer has cost 1 rub and 5 kop per bucket. Brewery equipment meets all technical requirements.

At the beginning of XX century intense economic ties observed between Samara and Ufa provinces, most of which play a role in the partnership and Trading Houses. They have established the relationship between the regions. Trading houses were the basis of the partnership in various fields of grain trade and industry. Oil production, grain and food industries  played a large role in the relationship between provinces. In the formation of economic relations was involved individuals: G. Peretz, and A.N Shikhobalov.


References
  1. Бобкова Е.Ю. Исследования по проблемам методологии исторической науки в 1980-2001 гг.: взгляд из сегодняшнего дня (научный историографический обзор) //Академический журнал «Интеллект, инновации, инвестиции», № 1, 2011. С. 145-152.
  2. Марцун Т.В. Торговые дома и товарищества в экономических связях Самары и Уфы в начале XX в // Известия Самарского научного центра Российской академии наук. 2010. Т. 12. № 2-1. С. 99-102.
  3. Толкачева Т.В. Строительство элеваторной системы в России (на примере Самарской губернии) в конце XIX – начале XX веков // Известия Пензенского государственного педагогического университета им. В.Г. Белинского. 2012. № 27. С. 1044-1046
  4. Рахманкулов Д.Л. Нефтяной бизнес в Урало-Поволжье во второй половине XIX.// Во славу российской нефти: Материалы научно-исторической конференции «Роль частного предпринимательства в развитии нефтяной промышленности России во второй половине XIX века». -  М. 2006. С. 77-78


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