УДК 81

ФУНКЦИОНАЛЬНО-СЕМАНТИЧЕСКИЕ ОСОБЕННОСТИ ВРЕМЕНИ PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

Жанабекова Магульсим Абдильдаевна
Казахский национальный университет им. аль-Фараби
кандидат филологических наук доцент Факультета филологии, литературоведения и мировых языков

Аннотация
Основная цель работы является определение семантической особенности форм настоящего времени казахского и английского языков на основе лексико-грамматической категории в пространстве функционального семантического поля.

Ключевые слова: аспект, мотивация, процесс, темпоральность


FUNCTIONAL–SEMANTIC PECULIARITIES OF PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

Zhanabekova Magulsim Abdildaevna
Al-Farabi Kazakh National University
Candidate of Philological Science Associated Professor at the Faculty of Philology, Literary Studies and World Language

Abstract
The main aim of article is to define semantic peculiarities of Present Continuous Tense on the basis of lexico- grammatical category of the Kazakh and English languages and different meanings of the use of Present Continuous in the sphere of functional semantic field.

Keywords: aspect, interval, motivation, process, progress, temporality


Рубрика: Филология

Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Жанабекова М.А. Functional–semantic peculiarities of present continuous tense // Гуманитарные научные исследования. 2013. № 2 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://human.snauka.ru/2013/02/2402 (дата обращения: 26.05.2017).

 (On the materials of Kazakh and English languages)

A verb conveys information about an action, an occurrence or a state of being, also when an action occurs – present, past, future. When speaking of the expression of time by the verb, it is necessary to strictly distinguish between the general notion of time, the lexical denotation of time, and the grammatical time proper, or grammatical temporality.

Parts of speech differ from each other in meaning, form and function, they have different lexical meanings. For example, verbs are words denoting processes and they have grammatical categories of person (who or what acts or experiences an action), number (how many subjects act or experience an action),  mood (what attitude is expressed an action), tense (when action occurs), aspect (some specific characteristics of an action), voice (whether the subject acts or is acted upon). Parts of speech differ from each other in their syntactic functions. For example, verbs have the function of predicate in the sentence.

According to the form, the Present Continuous Tense can be described as an

analytical  form  which  is  built  up  by  means  of  the  auxiliary  verb  to  be  in  the  Present  Indefinite  and the ing -form (a present participle) of  the  notional  verb. The grammatical meaning of the participle is closely connected with the lexical character of the verb. Here we can note that the present participle is  formed by adding –ing to the simple form (to laugh- laughing). To function as a verb  a present participle combines  with one or more auxiliary verbs (He is laughing) It is used alone, present participles function as nouns (laughing is healthy) or as adjectives (my laughing  friends)

According to the function, the Present Continuous Tense can be defined words making up the predicate of the sentence.

According to the semantics, the Present Continuous Tense can be admitted as the dynamic verbs, the most verbs are given a dynamic use on occasion in fundamental grammar.

The article will be based on the widely semantics of the Present Continuous Tense and learning rules can be related to their communicative potential.

We must be sure that the elements of semantics are introduced in hearing and experience.  We can’t keep our students from having a grammar – a framework within which they operate. It’s clear for language learners that there would be no communication, agreement about the accepted forms to convey meanings. There is no way in which learners of English are going to guess the existence of a way expressing continuousness in time relationships as in present progressive. At some stage they will either have to discover this inductively in the material or have it quickly brought to their attention. But we need a plenty of practice working with it, to use contemporary terminology, in functional ways.

We know that Blokh’s theoretical  definition stands  for us as the main tool when we deal with English Grammar, the immediate expression of grammatical time, or “tense” (Lat. tempus), is one of the typical functions of the finite verb. It is typical because the meaning of process in the verbal lexeme, finds its complete realisation only if presented in certain time conditions. That is why, the expression or non-expression of grammatical time, together with the expression or non-expression of grammatical mood in person-form presentation, constitutes the basis of the verbal category of infinitive i.e. the basis of the division of all the forms of the verb into finite and non-finite.

The dialectical-materialist notion of time exposes it as the universal form of the continual consecutive change of phenomena. Time, as well as space are the basic forms of the existence of matter, they both are inalienable properties of reality and as such are absolutely independent of human perception. On the other hand, like other objective factors of the universe, time is reflected by man through his perceptions and intellect, and finds its expression in his language.

It is but natural that time as the universal form of consecutive change of things should be appraised by the individual in reference to the moment of his immediate perception of the outward reality. This moment of immediate perception, or “present moment”, which is continually shifting in time, and the linguistic content of which is the “moment of speech”, serves as the demarcation line between the past and the future. All the lexical expressions of time, according as they refer or do not refer the denoted points or periods of time, directly or obliquely, to this moment, are divided into “present-oriented”, or “absolute” expressions of time, and “non-present-oriented”, “non-absolute” expressions of time.

In the course of  the  history of linguistics many different grammarians’   views  have been put forward, that is why we  cannot  realize be –ing  to achieve perspective  linking since 1066, we must  realize that the  definite  point of  its  history becomes  true, possible and fruitful.

In English  the Continuous  now,  at this moment, right  now, currently, for the time  being, while, when ,always – construction  requires external  progressive  or an  action in a progress, or aspect, to be (am,are, is) – do+ing  There is  no simple present continuous construction, as there is in the  Kazakh language. The grammatical description of this  present continuous form represents  a certain situation, or  happening events  now, around us now, happening in general, sometimes in  near future showing all these things real.

While  formulated for continuous these time expressions here,  the same argument applies to continuous  for discussion. This means that we derive a well known fact about the these constructions in English and Kazakh  are illustrated in:

     He is always  learning foreign languages – Ол үнемі шетел тілдерін үйреніп жүреді. Дегенмен бұл сөйлемнің астарында бір жағынан дұрыс түсінік жатса, бір жағынан  дұрыс емес те  түсінік жатыр деуге болады, ол сөйлеушінің тыңдаушыға жеткізуіне  байланысты. Бұл жерде сөйлеуші  бірде тұлғаны  мақтан тұтуды тілге тиек еткісі келсе, бірде оның тілдерді үйреніп жүргені  қайсы, бір тілді де жақсы игере алмаған, содан болар түк білмей  жүргені  жарытып бір тілде де деген  ойын білдіреді.

      The 75 th anniversary of  Al-Farabi Kazakh University is celebrating on October  in 2009  - 2009 жылы Қазан айында Әл Фараби атындағы Қазақ Ұлттық  университеті өзінің 75 жылдық  мерей тойын тойлайды. Бұл жерде  келешекке жоспарланып қойылған, болашақта орындалатын, сөйлеуші сөйлеп тұрған кезде Нақ  осы шақта айтуға болатын іс. Өйткені алдын ала игі істер, дайындық жұмыстар  жасалу  үстінде (жасалып жатыр) , яғни процессуалдық қасиеттің орындалу шағына, шегіне жету барысындағы өткел, үдіріс жүріп жатыр.

     He is writing a book about  some authentic materials for  specific  information on journalism right nowДәл қазір ол журналистикадан төл ақпарат беру үшін түпнұсқалық материалдар туралы  кітап жазып  жатыр. Сөйлеуші сөйлеп жатқан шақта істің даму барысында екенін көрсету мақсатында айтылып  тұр,  кітап әлі жазылып  біткен  жоқ.

It  is important  to  note  that  what  plays a crucial role in deriving these differences between  English  and Kazakh is the central  assumption of  Indo-European and  Turkic family of languages, unlike  in English tenses, we can  realize  internal perspective without realizing progressive aspect. Turning this upside down, the facts discussed in this section  motivate  the central  idea of  different languages  while other theories regard what I have called  action in the process or  aspect as ingredients of one grammatical operation (the progressive),  assumes that these ingredients are grammatically  separate operations. Here  we see a  specific case  in Kazakh, where one (internal action in the process ) occurs without the other (progressive aspect).

As account of continuous linking I assume in all my work  type shifting principles of  a type-continuing  and  progress on grammar. The semantics needs to build a meaning for a phrase  based  on the meanings of the parts. To do that it has, as a start, available the meanings of the parts, the basic operations of meaning-composition, functional application and  function composition, and the type that the meaning of a should be off. Often this is enough to build a meaning for a, but often it is not. In the latter case we have a semantic mismatch. Semantic mismatches do not necessarily make derivations crash: the grammar has a mechanism for resolving semantic mismatches at no cost, the type shifting theory, a set of type shifting principles. The type shifting theory is operative (under grammatical restrictions) where the grammar comes across a semantic mismatch that it cannot resolve by  other means.

In English, predicates with auxiliary modals in the present  and present progressives  are  felicitous, the latter two, because they have perspective realized.

What I will argue now is that, given the semantics of the continuity operator, and the theory of eventualities underlying 1066, the second option –realizing be- ing, is not a possibility. The reason is stativity. Suppose we realize be- ing. Look at the following structure:

Perspective P         be AspectP        -ing VP
Internal progressive LiA

The reason is that Progressive is an operation which map sets of events on to sets of events. This means that the output of progressive is a set of events. But the output of progressive is the input of CONTINUOUS.   If  the continuous aspect since phrase is generated at  the , and the input of continuous must be a set of states. And this is a conflict. The semantics of  continuous denotes a relation between point states. By the semantics of progressive  is  infelicitous.

Resolving the semantic mismatch of  Present Continuous with type shifting operation  of  going on results in an interpretation in which the operator CONTINUOUS is temporally linked to the operator INTERNAL.

The researching papers in this article volume investigate the semantics of continuous aspect from both a theoretical and a cross-linguistic point of view of happening events   in a wide range of language information from a number of different language   families. The papers of investigation work are all informed by the belief that a thorough exposure to the expression of aspect cross-linguistically is crucial for progress in understanding how the semantic of aspect works and what the semantic basis of aspectual distinctions is.  


References
  1. M. Blokh.  Theoretical Grammar of English. Moscow, 1983
  2. F. Palmer. Limguistic Study of the English Verb. Lnd., 1965
  3. H. Poutsma. A Grammar of the English Language. Croningen, 1996
  4. R. Quirk, S. Greenbaun and others. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. Lnd., 1985
  5. H. Stokoe. The Understanding of Syntax. Lnd., 1987
  6. H. Sweet. A New English Grammar. Logical and Historical. Oxford.
  7. H. Whitehall. Structural Essentials of English. N.Y., 1956
  8. A. Hill. Introduction to Linguistic Structures: from Sound to Sentence in English. N. Y., 1958
  9. T. McArthur, B. Atkins.8


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